Sunday, July 24, 2016

Gary Johnson, the Libertarian Candidate for President

Gary Johnson From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Changes must be reviewed before being displayed on this details Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the 2012 and 2016 Libertarian Party presidential nominee and former Governor of New Mexico. For other uses, see Gary Johnson (disambiguation). Gary Johnson LOOK 1 118 6x4 (2) (26230487521).jpg 29th Governor of New Mexico In office January 1, 1995 – January 1, 2003 Lieutenant Walter Bradley Preceded by Bruce King Succeeded by Bill Richardson Personal details Born Gary Earl Johnson January 1, 1953 (age 63) Minot, North Dakota, U.S. Political party Republican (Before 2011) Libertarian (2011–present) Spouse(s) Dee Simms (1977–2005) Domestic partner Kate Prusack (Engaged 2009) Alma mater University of New Mexico, Albuquerque Gary Johnson by Gage Skidmore 7 (cropped).jpg This article is part of a series about Gary Johnson Political positions Governor of New Mexico 1994 election · 1998 re-election Campaign for the Presidency (2012) 2012 Libertarian Convention Campaign for the Presidency (2016) 2016 Libertarian Convention · Primaries Our America Initiative NewMexico-StateSeal.svg v · t · e Gary Earl Johnson (born January 1, 1953) is an American businessman, politician and the Libertarian Party nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election. He served as the 29th Governor of New Mexico from 1995 to 2003 as a member of the Republican Party. He was the Libertarian Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 election.[1] Johnson announced his candidacy for president on April 21, 2011, as a Republican,[2] on a libertarian platform emphasizing the United States public debt and a balanced budget through a 43% reduction of all federal government spending, protection of civil liberties, an immediate end to the War in Afghanistan and his advocacy of the FairTax. On December 28, 2011, after being excluded from the majority of the Republican Party's presidential debates and failing to gain traction while campaigning for the New Hampshire primary, he withdrew his candidacy for the Republican nomination and announced that he would continue his presidential campaign as a candidate for the nomination of the Libertarian Party.[3] He won the Libertarian Party nomination on May 5, 2012. His chosen running mate Judge James P. Gray of California won the vice-presidential nomination. The Johnson/Gray ticket received 0.99% of the popular vote, amounting to 1.27 million votes, more than all other minor candidates combined. It was the best showing in the Libertarian Party's history by vote count.[4] On January 6, 2016, Johnson announced his candidacy for the Libertarian nomination once again in 2016,[5] and in May he selected former Republican Governor of Massachusetts William Weld as his running mate. On May 29, 2016, Johnson won the Libertarian nomination on the second ballot with 55.8% of the delegates.[6] Contents [hide] 1 Early life and career 2 Governor of New Mexico 2.1 First term 2.2 Second term 2.3 Reception 2.4 Post governorship 3 2012 presidential campaign 3.1 Early history 3.2 Republican presidential candidacy 3.3 Libertarian presidential nomination and campaign 4 Post-2012 elections 4.1 Our America Initiative PAC 4.2 CEO of Cannabis Sativa Inc. 5 2016 presidential campaign 6 Political positions 7 Personal life 8 Electoral history 9 Books 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links Early life and career[edit] Johnson was born on January 1, 1953, in Minot, North Dakota, the son of Lorraine B. (née Bostow), who worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and Earl W. Johnson, a public school teacher.[7] Johnson graduated from Sandia High School in Albuquerque in 1971, where he was on the school track team.[8] He attended the University of New Mexico from 1971 to 1975 and graduated with a Bachelor of Science in political science. While at UNM, he joined the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity.[9][10] It was there that he met his future wife, Denise "Dee" Simms. While in college, Johnson earned money as a door-to-door handyman.[11] His success in that industry encouraged him to start his own business, Big J Enterprises, in 1976. When he started the business, which focused on mechanical contracting, Johnson was its only employee.[12] His major break with the firm was receiving a large contract from Intel's expansion in Rio Rancho, which increased Big J's revenue to $38 million.[13] Over-burdened by his success, Johnson enrolled in a time management course at night school, which he credits with making him heavily goal-driven.[13] He eventually grew Big J into a multimillion-dollar corporation with over 1,000 employees.[14] By the time he sold the company in 1999, it was one of New Mexico's leading construction companies.[15] He entered politics for the first time by running for Governor of New Mexico in 1994 on a fiscally conservative, low-tax and anti-crime platform.[16] Johnson won the Republican Party of New Mexico's gubernatorial nomination, and defeated incumbent Democratic governor Bruce King. During his tenure as governor, Johnson became known for his low-tax libertarian views, adhering to policies of tax and bureaucracy reduction supported by a cost–benefit analysis rationale. He cut the 10% annual growth in the budget: in part, due to his use of the gubernatorial veto 200 times during his first six months in office.[17] Johnson set state and national records for his use of veto and line-item veto powers:[17] estimated to have been more than the other 49 contemporary governors combined,[18][19] which gained him the nicknames "Veto Johnson" and "Governor Veto".[20][21] Johnson successfully sought re-election in 1998. In his second term, he concentrated on the issue of school voucher reforms,[22] as well as campaigning for marijuana decriminalization and legalization, and opposition to the War on Drugs. Term limited, Johnson could not run for re-election at the end of his second term. After leaving office, Johnson founded the non-profit Our America Initiative in 2009, a political advocacy committee seeking to promote policies such as free enterprise, foreign non-interventionism, limited government and privatization. He endorsed the Republican presidential candidacy of Congressman Ron Paul in the 2008 election.[21] Governor of New Mexico[edit] First term[edit] See also: New Mexico gubernatorial election, 1994 Johnson entered politics in 1994, with the intention of running for governor and was advised by "Republican Elders"[13] to run for the State Legislature instead.[13] Despite their advice, Johnson spent $500,000 of his own money and entered the race with the intent of bringing a "common sense business approach" to the office.[23] Johnson's campaign slogan was "People before Politics".[24] His platform emphasized tax cuts, job creation, state government spending growth restraint, and law and order.[16] He won the Republican nomination, defeating state legislator Richard P. Cheney by 34% to 33%, with John Dendahl and former governor David F. Cargo in third and fourth. Johnson subsequently won the general election, defeating the incumbent Democratic Governor Bruce King by 50% to 40%. Johnson was elected in a nationally Republican year, although party registration in the state of New Mexico at the time was 2-to-1 Democratic.[25] As governor, Johnson followed a strict small government approach. According to former New Mexico Republican National Committee member Mickey D. Barnett, "Any time someone approached him about legislation for some purpose, his first response always was to ask if government should be involved in that to begin with."[26] He vetoed 200 of 424 bills in his first six months in office—a national record of 47% of all legislation—and used the line-item veto on most remaining bills.[17] In office, Johnson fulfilled his campaign promise to reduce the 10% annual growth of the state budget.[17] In his first budget, Johnson proposed a wide range of tax cuts, including a repeal of the prescription drug tax, a $47 million income tax cut, and a 6 cents per gallon gasoline tax cut. However, of these, only the gasoline tax cut was passed.[27] During the November 1995 federal government shutdown, he joined 20 other Republican governors who called on the Republican leadership in Congress to stand firm in negotiations against the Clinton administration in budget negotiations; in the article reporting on the letter and concomitant news conference he was quoted as calling for eliminating the budget deficit through proportional cuts across the budget.[28] Although Johnson worked to reduce overall state spending, in his first term, he raised education spending by nearly a third.[29] When drop-out rates and test scores showed little improvement, Johnson changed his tactics and began advocating for school vouchers—a key issue in budget battles of his second term as governor.[29] Second term[edit] See also: New Mexico gubernatorial election, 1998 In 1998, Johnson ran for re-election as governor against Democratic Albuquerque Mayor Martin Chavez. In his campaign, Johnson promised to continue the policies of his first term: improving schools; cutting state spending, taxes, and bureaucracy; and frequent use of his veto and line-item veto power.[30] Fielding a strong Hispanic candidate in a 40% Hispanic state, the Democrats were expected to oust Johnson,[29] but Johnson won by a 55%-to-45% margin:[31] making him the first Governor of New Mexico to serve two successive four-year terms after term limits were expanded to two terms in 1991.[23] Johnson made the promotion of a school voucher system a "hallmark issue" of his second term.[32] In 1999, he proposed the first statewide voucher system in America, which would have enrolled 100,000 students in its first year.[29] That year, he vetoed two budgets that failed to include a voucher program and a government shutdown was threatened,[29] but ultimately yielded to Democratic majorities in both houses of the New Mexico Legislature, who opposed the plan. Johnson signed the budget, but line-item vetoed a further $21m, or 0.5%, from the legislative plan.[33] In 1999, Johnson became one of the highest-ranking elected officials in the US to advocate the legalization of marijuana.[34] Saying the War on Drugs was "an expensive bust", he advocated the decriminalization of marijuana use and concentration on harm-reduction measures for all other illegal drugs. "He compared attempts to enforce the nation's drug laws with the failed attempt at alcohol prohibition. Half of what government spends on police, courts and prisons is to deal with drug offenders."[12] He suggested that drug abuse be treated as a health issue, not as a criminal issue. His approach to the issue garnered supportive notice from conservative icon William F. Buckley,[35] as well as the Cato Institute and Rolling Stone.[13] In 2000, Johnson proposed a more ambitious voucher program than he had proposed the year before, under which each parent would receive $3,500 per child for education at any private or parochial school.[32] The Democrats sought $90m extra school funding without school vouchers, and questioned Johnson's request for more funding for state-run prisons, having opposed his opening of two private prisons.[36] Negotiations between the governor and the legislature were contentious, again nearly leading to a government shutdown. In 2000, New Mexico was devastated by the Cerro Grande Fire. Johnson's handling of the disaster earned him accolades from The Denver Post, which observed that: Johnson.....was all over the Cerro Grande Fire last week. He helped reporters understand where the fire was headed when low-level Forest Service officials couldn't, ran herd over the bureaucratic process of getting state and federal agencies and the National Guard involved, and even helped put out some of the fire with his feet. On a tour of Los Alamos last Wednesday, when he saw small flames spreading across a lawn, he had his driver stop his car. He jumped out and stomped on the flames, as did his wife and some of his staffers.[37] Johnson's leadership during the fire was praised by Democratic Congressman Tom Udall, who said: "I think the real test of leadership is when you have circumstances like this. He's called on his reserves of energy and has just been a really excellent leader under very difficult circumstances here."[37] Johnson rebuffed efforts by the Libertarian Party to draft him in the 2000 presidential election, stating himself to be a Republican with no interest in running for president.[38] Reception[edit] Johnson in 2009 Commentator Andrew Sullivan quoted a claim that Johnson "is highly regarded in the state for his outstanding leadership during two terms as governor. He slashed the size of state government during his term and left the state with a large budget surplus."[39] In an interview in Reason magazine in January 2001, Johnson's accomplishments in office were described as follows: "no tax increases in six years, a major road building program, shifting Medicaid to managed care, constructing two new private prisons, canning 1,200 state employees, and vetoing a record number of bills".[23] According to one New Mexico paper, "Johnson left the state fiscally solid", and was "arguably the most popular governor of the decade… leaving the state with a $1 billion budget surplus."[40] The Washington Times reported that when Johnson left office, "the size of state government had been substantially reduced and New Mexico was enjoying a large budget surplus."[26] According to a profile of Johnson in the National Review, "During his tenure, he vetoed more bills than the other 49 governors combined—750 in total, one third of which had been introduced by Republican legislators. Johnson also used his line-item-veto power thousands of times. He credits his heavy veto pen for eliminating New Mexico's budget deficit and cutting the growth rate of New Mexico's government in half."[41] According to the Myrtle Beach Sun News, Johnson "said his numerous vetoes, only two of which were overridden, stemmed from his philosophy of looking at all things for their cost–benefit ratio and his axe fell on Republicans as well as Democrats".[12] Johnson at Ron Paul's "Rally for the Republic" While in office, Johnson was criticized for opposing funding for an independent study of private prisons after a series of riots and killings at the facilities.[42] Martin Chavez, his opponent in the 1998 New Mexico gubernatorial race, criticized Johnson for his frequent vetoing of programs, suggesting that it resulted in New Mexico's low economic and social standing nationally.[43] Journalist Mark Ames described Johnson as "a hard-core conservative" who "ruled the state like a right-wing authoritarian" and only embraced marijuana legalization in his second term for populist gain.[44] This was mainly in reference to a commercial from Johnson's reelection campaign, featuring Johnson saying that a felon in New Mexico would serve "every lousy second" of their prison sentence. Johnson insisted however that the commercial was directed at "the guy who's got his gun out" rather than non-violent drug offenders.[44] Post governorship[edit] Johnson was term limited and could not run for a third consecutive term as governor in 2002.[45] In the 2008 presidential election campaign, Johnson endorsed Ron Paul for the Republican nomination, "because of his commitment to less government, greater liberty, and lasting prosperity for America."[21][46] Johnson spoke at Paul's "Rally for the Republic" on September 2, 2008.[47] Johnson serves on the Advisory Council of Students for Sensible Drug Policy,[48] a student nonprofit organization which advocates for drug policy reform. As of April 2011, he serves on the board of directors of Students For Liberty, a nonprofit libertarian organization.[49] His first book, Seven Principles of Good Government, was published on August 1, 2012.[50] 2012 presidential campaign[edit] Main article: Gary Johnson presidential campaign, 2012 In the 2012 United States presidential election, Johnson received 0.99% of the popular vote, a total of 1,275,971 votes.[51] This was the best result in the Libertarian Party's history by raw vote number, though under the 1.1 percentage of the vote won by Ed Clark in 1980.[4][52] Early history[edit] Logo of the Our America Initiative, which Johnson founded in 2009 Gary Johnson 2012.jpeg In 2009, Johnson began indicating interest in running for president in the 2012 election.[53][54] In the April 20, 2009 edition of The American Conservative magazine, Bill Kauffman told readers to "keep an eye out" for a Johnson presidential campaign in 2012, reporting that Johnson had told him that "he was keeping his options open for 2012" and that "he may take a shot at the Republican presidential nomination in 2012 as an antiwar, anti-Fed, pro-personal liberties, slash-government-spending candidate—in other words, a Ron Paul libertarian".[53] During a June 24, 2009 appearance on Fox News's Freedom Watch, host Judge Andrew Napolitano asked Johnson if he would run for president in 2012, to which Johnson responded that he thought it would be inappropriate to openly express his desires before President Obama is given the opportunity to prove himself, but he followed up that statement by saying "it appears personal freedoms are being shoveled out the window more and more."[55] In an October 26, 2009 interview with the Santa Fe New Mexican's Steve Terrell, Johnson announced his decision to form an advocacy committee called the Our America Initiative to help him raise funds and promote small government ideas. In December 2009, Johnson asked strategist Ron Nielson of NSON Opinion Strategy, who has worked with Johnson since 1993 when he ran his successful gubernatorial campaign, to organize the Our American Initiative as a 501(c)(4) committee. Nielson serves as a senior advisor to Our America Initiative. The stated focus of the organization is to "speak out on issues regarding topics such as government efficiency, lowering taxes, ending the war on drugs, protecting civil liberties, revitalizing the economy and promoting entrepreneurship and privatization".[56] The move prompted speculation among media pundits and Johnson's supporters that he might be laying the groundwork for a 2012 presidential run.[57][58] Throughout 2010, Johnson repeatedly deflected questions about a 2012 presidential bid by saying his 501(c)(4) status prevented him from expressing a desire to run for federal office on politics.[59][60] However, he was outspoken about the issues affecting the country, particularly "the size and cost of government" and the "deficits and debt that truly threaten to consume the U.S. economy, and which represent the single greatest threat to our national security."[61] Johnson speaking at CPAC 2011 In February 2011, Johnson was a featured speaker at both the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) and the Republican Liberty Caucus.[62] At CPAC, "the crowd liked him—even as he pushed some of his more controversial points."[63] Johnson tied with New Jersey Governor Chris Christie for third in the CPAC Straw Poll, trailing only Ron Paul and Mitt Romney (and ahead of such notables as former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, former Minnesota Governor Tim Pawlenty, Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels and former Alaska Governor and 2008 vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin).[64] David Weigel of Slate called Johnson the second-biggest winner of the conference, writing that his "third-place showing in the straw poll gave Johnson his first real media hook … He met tons of reporters, commanded a small scrum after the vote, and is a slightly lighter shade of dark horse now."[65] Republican presidential candidacy[edit] On April 21, 2011 Johnson announced via Twitter, "I am running for president."[66] He followed this announcement with a speech at the New Hampshire State House in Concord, New Hampshire.[2] He was the first of an eventually large field to announce his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination.[67] Johnson again chose Ron Nielson of NSON Opinion Strategy a director for both of his New Mexico gubernatorial campaigns, as his presidential campaign manager and senior advisor.[67] The campaign was headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah where Nielson's offices are located.[67] Johnson's economics advisor was Harvard economics professor Jeffrey Miron.[68] Initially, Johnson hoped Ron Paul would not run for president so that Johnson could galvanize Paul's network of libertarian-minded voters, and he even traveled to Houston to tell Paul of his decision to run in person,[67] but Paul announced his candidacy on May 13, 2011. Johnson participated in the first of the Republican presidential debates, hosted by Fox News in South Carolina on May 5, 2011, appearing on stage with Herman Cain, Ron Paul, Tim Pawlenty, and Rick Santorum. Mitt Romney and Michele Bachmann both declined to debate. Johnson was excluded from the next three debates on June 13 (hosted by CNN in New Hampshire), August 11 (hosted by Fox News in Iowa), and September 7 (hosted by CNN in California).[67] After the first exclusion, Johnson made a 43-minute video responding to each of the debate questions, which he posted on YouTube.[67][69] The first exclusion, which was widely publicized, gave Johnson "a little bump" in name recognition and produced "a small uptick" in donations.[67] But "the long term consequences were dismal."[67] For the financial quarter ending June 30, Johnson raised a mere $180,000.[67] Fox News decided that because Johnson polled at least 2% in five recent polls, he could participate in a September 22 debate in Florida, which it co-hosted with the Florida Republican Party (the party objected to Johnson's inclusion).[67] Johnson participated, appearing on stage with Michele Bachmann, Herman Cain, Newt Gingrich, Jon Huntsman, Ron Paul, Rick Perry, Mitt Romney, and Rick Santorum. During the debate, Johnson delivered what many media outlets, including the Los Angeles Times, and Time, called the best line of the night: "My next-door neighbor's two dogs have created more shovel ready jobs than this administration."[70][71] Entertainment Weekly opined that Johnson had won the debate.[72] Libertarian presidential nomination and campaign[edit] Although Johnson had focused the majority of his campaign activities on the New Hampshire primary, he announced on November 29, 2011 that he would no longer campaign there due to his inability to gain traction with less than a month until the primary.[73] There was speculation in the media that he might run as a Libertarian Party candidate instead. Johnson acknowledged that he was considering such a move.[74][75][76] In December, Politico reported that Johnson would quit the Republican primaries and announce his intention to seek the Libertarian Party nomination at a December 28 press conference.[77] He also encouraged his supporters to vote for Ron Paul in 2012 Republican presidential primaries.[78] Gary Johnson at 2012 Libertarian National Convention On December 28, 2011, Johnson formally withdrew his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination, and declared his candidacy for the 2012 presidential nomination of the Libertarian Party in Santa Fe, New Mexico.[3] On May 5, 2012, at the 2012 Libertarian National Convention, Johnson received the Libertarian Party's official nomination for president in the 2012 election, by a vote of 419 votes to 152 votes for second-place candidate R. Lee Wrights.[1][79] In his acceptance speech, Johnson asked the convention's delegates to nominate as his running mate Judge Jim Gray of California.[80] Gray subsequently received the party's vice-presidential nomination on the first ballot.[79] Johnson spent the early months of his campaign making media appearances on television programs such as The Daily Show with Jon Stewart[81] and Red Eye w/Greg Gutfeld.[82] Starting in September 2012, Johnson embarked on a three-week tour of college campuses throughout the US.[83][84] On October 23, 2012, Gary Johnson participated in a third party debate that was aired on C-SPAN, RT America, and Al Jazeera English.[85][86] A post-debate online election allowed people to choose two candidates from the debate they thought had won to face each other head to head in a run-off debate. Gary Johnson and Jill Stein won the poll.[87] They debated in Washington, D.C., on November 5, 2012.[88] Johnson stated that his goal was to win at least 5 percent of the vote, as winning 5 percent would allow Libertarian Party candidates equal ballot access and federal funding during the next election cycle.[89][90] In a national Gallup poll of likely registered voters conducted June 7 through June 10, 2012, Johnson took 3% of the vote,[91] while a Gallup poll conducted September 6 through September 9, 2012, showed Johnson taking 1% of likely voters.[92] A Zogby poll released July 13, 2012, revealed Johnson took 5.3% of likely voters,[93] while a Zogby poll released September 23, 2012, showed Johnson taking 2% of likely voters.[94] The final results showed Johnson polling nearly 1.3 million votes and 1.0% of the popular vote.[95][96] This established a Libertarian Party record for total votes won in a presidential election and the second-highest Libertarian percentage ever, behind Ed Clark's 1.1% in 1980.[97] Despite falling short of his stated goal of 5%, Johnson stated, "Ours is a mission accomplished".[98] In regards to a future presidential bid, he said "it is too soon to be talking about 2016".[98] Post-2012 elections[edit] Since the 2012 elections, Johnson has continued to criticize the Obama administration on various issues. In an article for The Guardian, Johnson called on United States Attorney General Eric Holder to let individual states legalize marijuana.[99] In a Google Hangout hosted by Johnson in June 2013, he criticized the US government's lack of transparency and due process in regards to the NSA's domestic surveillance programs. He also said that he would not rule out running as a Republican again in the future.[100] Our America Initiative PAC[edit] In December 2013, Johnson announced the founding of his own Super PAC, Our America Initiative PAC. The Super PAC is intended to support libertarian-minded causes. “From the realities of government-run healthcare setting in to the continuing disclosures of the breadth of NSA’s domestic spying, more Americans than ever are ready to take a serious look at candidates who offer real alternatives to business-as-usual,” the release announcing the PAC said.[101] CEO of Cannabis Sativa Inc.[edit] In July 2014, Johnson was named president and CEO of Cannabis Sativa Inc., a Nevada-based company that aims primarily to sell medical cannabis products in states where medicinal and/or recreational cannabis is legal.[102][103] 2016 presidential campaign[edit] Main article: Gary Johnson presidential campaign, 2016 Gary Johnson speaking at the 2016 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in Washington, D.C. In an April 2014, Reddit "Ask Me Anything" session, Johnson stated that he hoped to run for president again in 2016.[104] On whether he would run as a Libertarian or a Republican, he stated that "I would love running as a Libertarian because I would have the least amount of explaining to do."[104] In November 2014, Johnson affirmed his intention to run for the 2016 Libertarian nomination.[105] In July 2015, Johnson reiterated his intentions for a presidential campaign but stated he was not announcing anything imminently: "I just think there are more downsides than upsides to announcing at this point, and, look, I don’t have any delusions about the process. In retrospect, 90 percent of the time I spent [trying to become president] ended up to be wasted time."[106] In January 2016, Johnson resigned from his post as CEO of Cannabis Sativa, Inc., to pursue political opportunities, hinting to a 2016 presidential run.[107] On January 6, 2016, Johnson declared that he would seek the Libertarian nomination for the presidency.[5] On May 18, Johnson named former Massachusetts Governor William Weld as his running mate.[108] On May 29, 2016, Johnson received the Libertarian nomination on the second ballot.[6] Political positions[edit] Main article: Political positions of Gary Johnson Johnson's views have been described as fiscally conservative and socially liberal[109] with a philosophy of limited government[110] and military non-interventionism.[111][112] He has identified as a classical liberal.[113] Johnson has said he favors simplifying and reducing taxes.[114] During his governorship, Johnson cut taxes fourteen times and never increased them.[115] Due to his stance on taxes, political pundit David Weigel described him as "the original Tea Party candidate."[116] Johnson has advocated for the FairTax, a proposal which would abolish all federal income, corporate and capital gains taxes, and replace them with a 23% tax on consumption of all non-essential goods, while providing a regressive rebate to households according to income level. He has argued that this would assure transparency in the tax system and incentivize the private sector to create "tens of millions of jobs."[117] In June 2016, Johnson said that he supported the Trans-Pacific Partnership.[118] Johnson has said that he supports balancing the federal budget immediately.[119] He has stated he supports "slashing government spending", including Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security,[114] which would involve cutting Medicare and Medicaid by 43 percent and turning them into block grant programs, with control of spending in the hands of the states to create, in his words, "fifty laboratories of innovation."[119] He has advocated passing a law allowing for state bankruptcy and expressly ruling out a federal bailout of any states.[110] Johnson has expressed opposition to the Federal Reserve System, which he has cited as massively devaluing the strength of the U.S. dollar, and would sign legislation to eliminate it. He has also supported an audit of the central bank, and urged Members of Congress in July 2012 to vote in favor of Ron Paul's Federal Reserve Transparency Act.[120] In his campaign for the Libertarian Party nomination, he stated he opposed foreign wars and pledged to cut the military budget by 43 percent in his first term as president.[112] He would cut the military's overseas bases, uniformed and civilian personnel, research and development, intelligence, and nuclear weapons programs.[121][122] He has stated his opposition to US involvement in the War in Afghanistan and opposed the US involvement in the Libyan Civil War.[123] He has stated that he does not believe Iran is a military threat, would use his presidential power to prevent Israel from attacking Iran, and would not follow Israel, or any other ally, into a war that it had initiated.[124] Johnson is a strong supporter of civil liberties and received the highest score of any candidate from the American Civil Liberties Union for supporting drug decriminalization while opposing censorship and regulation of the Internet, the Patriot Act, enhanced airport screenings, and the indefinite detention of prisoners.[125] He has spoken in favor of the separation of church and state, and has said that he does not "seek the counsel of God" when determining his political agenda.[126] Johnson endorsed same-sex marriage in 2011;[127] he has since called for a constitutional amendment protecting equal marriage rights,[127] and criticized Obama's position on the issue as having "thrown this question back to the states."[128] On the other hand, Johnson opposes Roe v. Wade, believing states should decide the matter. He has been a longtime advocate of legalizing marijuana and has said that if he were president, he would remove it from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act as well as issue an executive order pardoning non-violent marijuana offenders.[129] Johnson has stated his opposition to gun control and has said, "I'm a firm believer in the Second Amendment and so I would not have signed legislation banning assault weapons or automatic weapons."[130] Personal life[edit] Johnson running the 38th Annual Stratham Fair Road Race Johnson was married to Dee Johnson (née Simms; 1952–2006) from 1977 to 2005.[131] As First Lady of New Mexico, she engaged in campaigns against smoking and breast cancer,[132] and oversaw the expansion of the Governor's Mansion. He initiated a separation in May 2005 and four months later he announced that they would divorce.[133] At the age of 54, Dee Johnson died unexpectedly on December 22, 2006,[134] her cause of death later attributed to hypertensive heart disease.[135] Johnson became engaged to Santa Fe real estate agent Kate Prusack in 2009 a year after meeting her at a bike race in Sante Fe.[136] Prusack has stated that the reason they have not yet married is because "My fiance’s always on the road."[137] Johnson lives in Taos, New Mexico,[138][139] in a home that he built himself.[63] He is an avid triathlete who bikes extensively. During his term in office, he competed in several triathlons, marathons and bike races. He competed three times (1993, 1997, 1999) as a celebrity invitee at the Ironman World Championship in Hawaii, registering his best time for the 2.4-mile (3.9 km) swim, 112-mile (180 km) bike ride, and 26.2-mile (42.2 km) marathon run in 1999 with 10 hours, 39 minutes, and 16 seconds.[140][141] He once ran 100 miles (160 km) in 30 consecutive hours in the Rocky Mountains.[13] On May 30, 2003, he reached the summit of Mount Everest[142] "despite toes blackened with frostbite."[26] He has climbed all seven of the Seven Summits: Mount Everest, Mount Elbrus, Denali, Mount Kilimanjaro, Aconcagua, Mount Vinson, and Carstensz Pyramid—the tallest peaks in Asia, Europe, North America, Africa, South America, Antarctica, and Oceania respectively.[143] He completed the Bataan Memorial Death March at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, in which participants traverse a 26.2 mile course through the desert, many of them in combat boots and wearing 35-pound packs.[144] On October 12, 2005, Johnson was involved in a near-fatal paragliding accident when his wing caught in a tree and he fell approximately 50 feet to the ground. Johnson suffered multiple bone fractures, including a burst fracture to his twelfth thoracic vertebra, a broken rib, and a broken knee; this accident left him 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) shorter.[145][146][147] He used medicinal marijuana for pain control from 2005-08.[148] Johnson is a Lutheran and has stated that his belief in God has given him "a very fundamental belief that we should do unto others as we would have others do unto us."[149] Electoral history[edit] New Mexico gubernatorial election, 1994[150] Party Candidate Votes % ± Republican Gary Johnson 232,945 49.81% +4.66% Democratic Bruce King (inc.) 186,686 39.92% -14.68% Green Roberto Mondragón 47,990 10.26% Majority 46,259 9.89% +0.44% Turnout 467,621 Republican gain from Democratic Swing New Mexico gubernatorial election, 1998[151] Party Candidate Votes % ± Republican Gary Johnson (inc.) 271,948 54.53% +4.72% Democratic Martin Chávez 226,755 45.47% +5.55% Majority 45,193 9.06% -0.83% Turnout 498,703 Republican hold Swing United States presidential election, 2012[96] Election on November 6, 2012 Party Candidate Votes % ± Democratic Barack Obama (inc.) 65,899,583 51.03% -1.84% Republican Mitt Romney 60,931,966 47.19% +1.59% Libertarian Gary Johnson 1,275,821 0.99% +0.59% Green Jill Stein 468,907 0.36% +0.24% Constitution Virgil Goode 121,616 0.09% -0.06% Others Others 434,247 0.34% -0.52% Majority (1,333,513) (1.03%) Turnout 129,132,140 57.5% Democratic hold Swing Books[edit] Seven Principles of Good Government: Gary Johnson on liberty, people and politics. 2012. Aberdeen, WA: Silver Lake Publishing. ISBN 978-1563439131. OCLC 809701081 References[edit] 1.^ Jump up to: a b Pratt, Timothy (May 5, 2012). "Libertarians nominate ex-Governor Gary Johnson for president". Reuters. Retrieved May 6, 2012. 2.^ Jump up to: a b Marr, Kendra (April 21, 2011). "Gary Johnson makes 2012 presidential run official". Politico. Retrieved April 21, 2011. 3.^ Jump up to: a b Stewart, Rebecca (December 28, 2011). "'Liberated' Gary Johnson seeks Libertarian nomination". CNN. Retrieved December 28, 2011. 4.^ Jump up to: a b Tuccile, J.D. "Gary Johnson Pulls One Million Votes, One Percent". Reason. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 5.^ Jump up to: a b Collins, Eliza (January 6, 2016). "Libertarian Gary Johnson launches presidential bid". Politico. Retrieved January 6, 2016. 6.^ Jump up to: a b "Gary Johnson Wins Libertarian Nomination for President". ABC. May 29, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2016. 7.Jump up ^ Who's Who in the West 1996–1997. Marquis Who's Who. 1995. p. 421. 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"Johnson campaign tests GOP support for 'classical liberal'". The Eagle-Tribune. Retrieved July 12, 2014. 147.Jump up ^ Moody, Chris (2011-09-21). "Unorthodox GOP candidate Gary Johnson gets his chance in Orlando debate". Yahoo! News. Yahoo!. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 148.Jump up ^ McCormack, John (December 6, 2010). "Gov. Gary Johnson: I Smoked Marijuana from 2005 to 2008". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved April 21, 2011. 149.Jump up ^ "Gary Johnson Candidate Profile". Reason. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012. 150.Jump up ^ "Canvass of Returns of General Election Held on November 8, 1994 – State of New Mexico" (PDF). 151.Jump up ^ "State of New Mexico Official 1998 General Election Results for Governor Of New Mexico". Archived from the original on November 30, 2008. Further reading[edit] 2001 and 2002 State of the State speeches from Failure-to-Launch, Nick Heil, Outside, September 12, 2011 Republican Presidential Candidate Gary Johnson On Technology, Benjamin Kuo,, November 2011 External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gary Johnson. 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