Sunday, July 24, 2016

Gary Johnson, the Libertarian Candidate for President

Gary Johnson From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Changes must be reviewed before being displayed on this page.show/hide details Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the 2012 and 2016 Libertarian Party presidential nominee and former Governor of New Mexico. For other uses, see Gary Johnson (disambiguation). Gary Johnson LOOK 1 118 6x4 (2) (26230487521).jpg 29th Governor of New Mexico In office January 1, 1995 – January 1, 2003 Lieutenant Walter Bradley Preceded by Bruce King Succeeded by Bill Richardson Personal details Born Gary Earl Johnson January 1, 1953 (age 63) Minot, North Dakota, U.S. Political party Republican (Before 2011) Libertarian (2011–present) Spouse(s) Dee Simms (1977–2005) Domestic partner Kate Prusack (Engaged 2009) Alma mater University of New Mexico, Albuquerque Gary Johnson by Gage Skidmore 7 (cropped).jpg This article is part of a series about Gary Johnson Political positions Governor of New Mexico 1994 election · 1998 re-election Campaign for the Presidency (2012) 2012 Libertarian Convention Campaign for the Presidency (2016) 2016 Libertarian Convention · Primaries Our America Initiative NewMexico-StateSeal.svg v · t · e Gary Earl Johnson (born January 1, 1953) is an American businessman, politician and the Libertarian Party nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election. He served as the 29th Governor of New Mexico from 1995 to 2003 as a member of the Republican Party. He was the Libertarian Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 election.[1] Johnson announced his candidacy for president on April 21, 2011, as a Republican,[2] on a libertarian platform emphasizing the United States public debt and a balanced budget through a 43% reduction of all federal government spending, protection of civil liberties, an immediate end to the War in Afghanistan and his advocacy of the FairTax. On December 28, 2011, after being excluded from the majority of the Republican Party's presidential debates and failing to gain traction while campaigning for the New Hampshire primary, he withdrew his candidacy for the Republican nomination and announced that he would continue his presidential campaign as a candidate for the nomination of the Libertarian Party.[3] He won the Libertarian Party nomination on May 5, 2012. His chosen running mate Judge James P. Gray of California won the vice-presidential nomination. The Johnson/Gray ticket received 0.99% of the popular vote, amounting to 1.27 million votes, more than all other minor candidates combined. It was the best showing in the Libertarian Party's history by vote count.[4] On January 6, 2016, Johnson announced his candidacy for the Libertarian nomination once again in 2016,[5] and in May he selected former Republican Governor of Massachusetts William Weld as his running mate. On May 29, 2016, Johnson won the Libertarian nomination on the second ballot with 55.8% of the delegates.[6] Contents [hide] 1 Early life and career 2 Governor of New Mexico 2.1 First term 2.2 Second term 2.3 Reception 2.4 Post governorship 3 2012 presidential campaign 3.1 Early history 3.2 Republican presidential candidacy 3.3 Libertarian presidential nomination and campaign 4 Post-2012 elections 4.1 Our America Initiative PAC 4.2 CEO of Cannabis Sativa Inc. 5 2016 presidential campaign 6 Political positions 7 Personal life 8 Electoral history 9 Books 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links Early life and career[edit] Johnson was born on January 1, 1953, in Minot, North Dakota, the son of Lorraine B. (née Bostow), who worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and Earl W. Johnson, a public school teacher.[7] Johnson graduated from Sandia High School in Albuquerque in 1971, where he was on the school track team.[8] He attended the University of New Mexico from 1971 to 1975 and graduated with a Bachelor of Science in political science. While at UNM, he joined the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity.[9][10] It was there that he met his future wife, Denise "Dee" Simms. While in college, Johnson earned money as a door-to-door handyman.[11] His success in that industry encouraged him to start his own business, Big J Enterprises, in 1976. When he started the business, which focused on mechanical contracting, Johnson was its only employee.[12] His major break with the firm was receiving a large contract from Intel's expansion in Rio Rancho, which increased Big J's revenue to $38 million.[13] Over-burdened by his success, Johnson enrolled in a time management course at night school, which he credits with making him heavily goal-driven.[13] He eventually grew Big J into a multimillion-dollar corporation with over 1,000 employees.[14] By the time he sold the company in 1999, it was one of New Mexico's leading construction companies.[15] He entered politics for the first time by running for Governor of New Mexico in 1994 on a fiscally conservative, low-tax and anti-crime platform.[16] Johnson won the Republican Party of New Mexico's gubernatorial nomination, and defeated incumbent Democratic governor Bruce King. During his tenure as governor, Johnson became known for his low-tax libertarian views, adhering to policies of tax and bureaucracy reduction supported by a cost–benefit analysis rationale. He cut the 10% annual growth in the budget: in part, due to his use of the gubernatorial veto 200 times during his first six months in office.[17] Johnson set state and national records for his use of veto and line-item veto powers:[17] estimated to have been more than the other 49 contemporary governors combined,[18][19] which gained him the nicknames "Veto Johnson" and "Governor Veto".[20][21] Johnson successfully sought re-election in 1998. In his second term, he concentrated on the issue of school voucher reforms,[22] as well as campaigning for marijuana decriminalization and legalization, and opposition to the War on Drugs. Term limited, Johnson could not run for re-election at the end of his second term. After leaving office, Johnson founded the non-profit Our America Initiative in 2009, a political advocacy committee seeking to promote policies such as free enterprise, foreign non-interventionism, limited government and privatization. He endorsed the Republican presidential candidacy of Congressman Ron Paul in the 2008 election.[21] Governor of New Mexico[edit] First term[edit] See also: New Mexico gubernatorial election, 1994 Johnson entered politics in 1994, with the intention of running for governor and was advised by "Republican Elders"[13] to run for the State Legislature instead.[13] Despite their advice, Johnson spent $500,000 of his own money and entered the race with the intent of bringing a "common sense business approach" to the office.[23] Johnson's campaign slogan was "People before Politics".[24] His platform emphasized tax cuts, job creation, state government spending growth restraint, and law and order.[16] He won the Republican nomination, defeating state legislator Richard P. Cheney by 34% to 33%, with John Dendahl and former governor David F. Cargo in third and fourth. Johnson subsequently won the general election, defeating the incumbent Democratic Governor Bruce King by 50% to 40%. Johnson was elected in a nationally Republican year, although party registration in the state of New Mexico at the time was 2-to-1 Democratic.[25] As governor, Johnson followed a strict small government approach. According to former New Mexico Republican National Committee member Mickey D. Barnett, "Any time someone approached him about legislation for some purpose, his first response always was to ask if government should be involved in that to begin with."[26] He vetoed 200 of 424 bills in his first six months in office—a national record of 47% of all legislation—and used the line-item veto on most remaining bills.[17] In office, Johnson fulfilled his campaign promise to reduce the 10% annual growth of the state budget.[17] In his first budget, Johnson proposed a wide range of tax cuts, including a repeal of the prescription drug tax, a $47 million income tax cut, and a 6 cents per gallon gasoline tax cut. However, of these, only the gasoline tax cut was passed.[27] During the November 1995 federal government shutdown, he joined 20 other Republican governors who called on the Republican leadership in Congress to stand firm in negotiations against the Clinton administration in budget negotiations; in the article reporting on the letter and concomitant news conference he was quoted as calling for eliminating the budget deficit through proportional cuts across the budget.[28] Although Johnson worked to reduce overall state spending, in his first term, he raised education spending by nearly a third.[29] When drop-out rates and test scores showed little improvement, Johnson changed his tactics and began advocating for school vouchers—a key issue in budget battles of his second term as governor.[29] Second term[edit] See also: New Mexico gubernatorial election, 1998 In 1998, Johnson ran for re-election as governor against Democratic Albuquerque Mayor Martin Chavez. In his campaign, Johnson promised to continue the policies of his first term: improving schools; cutting state spending, taxes, and bureaucracy; and frequent use of his veto and line-item veto power.[30] Fielding a strong Hispanic candidate in a 40% Hispanic state, the Democrats were expected to oust Johnson,[29] but Johnson won by a 55%-to-45% margin:[31] making him the first Governor of New Mexico to serve two successive four-year terms after term limits were expanded to two terms in 1991.[23] Johnson made the promotion of a school voucher system a "hallmark issue" of his second term.[32] In 1999, he proposed the first statewide voucher system in America, which would have enrolled 100,000 students in its first year.[29] That year, he vetoed two budgets that failed to include a voucher program and a government shutdown was threatened,[29] but ultimately yielded to Democratic majorities in both houses of the New Mexico Legislature, who opposed the plan. Johnson signed the budget, but line-item vetoed a further $21m, or 0.5%, from the legislative plan.[33] In 1999, Johnson became one of the highest-ranking elected officials in the US to advocate the legalization of marijuana.[34] Saying the War on Drugs was "an expensive bust", he advocated the decriminalization of marijuana use and concentration on harm-reduction measures for all other illegal drugs. "He compared attempts to enforce the nation's drug laws with the failed attempt at alcohol prohibition. Half of what government spends on police, courts and prisons is to deal with drug offenders."[12] He suggested that drug abuse be treated as a health issue, not as a criminal issue. His approach to the issue garnered supportive notice from conservative icon William F. Buckley,[35] as well as the Cato Institute and Rolling Stone.[13] In 2000, Johnson proposed a more ambitious voucher program than he had proposed the year before, under which each parent would receive $3,500 per child for education at any private or parochial school.[32] The Democrats sought $90m extra school funding without school vouchers, and questioned Johnson's request for more funding for state-run prisons, having opposed his opening of two private prisons.[36] Negotiations between the governor and the legislature were contentious, again nearly leading to a government shutdown. In 2000, New Mexico was devastated by the Cerro Grande Fire. Johnson's handling of the disaster earned him accolades from The Denver Post, which observed that: Johnson.....was all over the Cerro Grande Fire last week. He helped reporters understand where the fire was headed when low-level Forest Service officials couldn't, ran herd over the bureaucratic process of getting state and federal agencies and the National Guard involved, and even helped put out some of the fire with his feet. On a tour of Los Alamos last Wednesday, when he saw small flames spreading across a lawn, he had his driver stop his car. He jumped out and stomped on the flames, as did his wife and some of his staffers.[37] Johnson's leadership during the fire was praised by Democratic Congressman Tom Udall, who said: "I think the real test of leadership is when you have circumstances like this. He's called on his reserves of energy and has just been a really excellent leader under very difficult circumstances here."[37] Johnson rebuffed efforts by the Libertarian Party to draft him in the 2000 presidential election, stating himself to be a Republican with no interest in running for president.[38] Reception[edit] Johnson in 2009 Commentator Andrew Sullivan quoted a claim that Johnson "is highly regarded in the state for his outstanding leadership during two terms as governor. He slashed the size of state government during his term and left the state with a large budget surplus."[39] In an interview in Reason magazine in January 2001, Johnson's accomplishments in office were described as follows: "no tax increases in six years, a major road building program, shifting Medicaid to managed care, constructing two new private prisons, canning 1,200 state employees, and vetoing a record number of bills".[23] According to one New Mexico paper, "Johnson left the state fiscally solid", and was "arguably the most popular governor of the decade… leaving the state with a $1 billion budget surplus."[40] The Washington Times reported that when Johnson left office, "the size of state government had been substantially reduced and New Mexico was enjoying a large budget surplus."[26] According to a profile of Johnson in the National Review, "During his tenure, he vetoed more bills than the other 49 governors combined—750 in total, one third of which had been introduced by Republican legislators. Johnson also used his line-item-veto power thousands of times. He credits his heavy veto pen for eliminating New Mexico's budget deficit and cutting the growth rate of New Mexico's government in half."[41] According to the Myrtle Beach Sun News, Johnson "said his numerous vetoes, only two of which were overridden, stemmed from his philosophy of looking at all things for their cost–benefit ratio and his axe fell on Republicans as well as Democrats".[12] Johnson at Ron Paul's "Rally for the Republic" While in office, Johnson was criticized for opposing funding for an independent study of private prisons after a series of riots and killings at the facilities.[42] Martin Chavez, his opponent in the 1998 New Mexico gubernatorial race, criticized Johnson for his frequent vetoing of programs, suggesting that it resulted in New Mexico's low economic and social standing nationally.[43] Journalist Mark Ames described Johnson as "a hard-core conservative" who "ruled the state like a right-wing authoritarian" and only embraced marijuana legalization in his second term for populist gain.[44] This was mainly in reference to a commercial from Johnson's reelection campaign, featuring Johnson saying that a felon in New Mexico would serve "every lousy second" of their prison sentence. Johnson insisted however that the commercial was directed at "the guy who's got his gun out" rather than non-violent drug offenders.[44] Post governorship[edit] Johnson was term limited and could not run for a third consecutive term as governor in 2002.[45] In the 2008 presidential election campaign, Johnson endorsed Ron Paul for the Republican nomination, "because of his commitment to less government, greater liberty, and lasting prosperity for America."[21][46] Johnson spoke at Paul's "Rally for the Republic" on September 2, 2008.[47] Johnson serves on the Advisory Council of Students for Sensible Drug Policy,[48] a student nonprofit organization which advocates for drug policy reform. As of April 2011, he serves on the board of directors of Students For Liberty, a nonprofit libertarian organization.[49] His first book, Seven Principles of Good Government, was published on August 1, 2012.[50] 2012 presidential campaign[edit] Main article: Gary Johnson presidential campaign, 2012 In the 2012 United States presidential election, Johnson received 0.99% of the popular vote, a total of 1,275,971 votes.[51] This was the best result in the Libertarian Party's history by raw vote number, though under the 1.1 percentage of the vote won by Ed Clark in 1980.[4][52] Early history[edit] Logo of the Our America Initiative, which Johnson founded in 2009 Gary Johnson 2012.jpeg In 2009, Johnson began indicating interest in running for president in the 2012 election.[53][54] In the April 20, 2009 edition of The American Conservative magazine, Bill Kauffman told readers to "keep an eye out" for a Johnson presidential campaign in 2012, reporting that Johnson had told him that "he was keeping his options open for 2012" and that "he may take a shot at the Republican presidential nomination in 2012 as an antiwar, anti-Fed, pro-personal liberties, slash-government-spending candidate—in other words, a Ron Paul libertarian".[53] During a June 24, 2009 appearance on Fox News's Freedom Watch, host Judge Andrew Napolitano asked Johnson if he would run for president in 2012, to which Johnson responded that he thought it would be inappropriate to openly express his desires before President Obama is given the opportunity to prove himself, but he followed up that statement by saying "it appears personal freedoms are being shoveled out the window more and more."[55] In an October 26, 2009 interview with the Santa Fe New Mexican's Steve Terrell, Johnson announced his decision to form an advocacy committee called the Our America Initiative to help him raise funds and promote small government ideas. In December 2009, Johnson asked strategist Ron Nielson of NSON Opinion Strategy, who has worked with Johnson since 1993 when he ran his successful gubernatorial campaign, to organize the Our American Initiative as a 501(c)(4) committee. Nielson serves as a senior advisor to Our America Initiative. The stated focus of the organization is to "speak out on issues regarding topics such as government efficiency, lowering taxes, ending the war on drugs, protecting civil liberties, revitalizing the economy and promoting entrepreneurship and privatization".[56] The move prompted speculation among media pundits and Johnson's supporters that he might be laying the groundwork for a 2012 presidential run.[57][58] Throughout 2010, Johnson repeatedly deflected questions about a 2012 presidential bid by saying his 501(c)(4) status prevented him from expressing a desire to run for federal office on politics.[59][60] However, he was outspoken about the issues affecting the country, particularly "the size and cost of government" and the "deficits and debt that truly threaten to consume the U.S. economy, and which represent the single greatest threat to our national security."[61] Johnson speaking at CPAC 2011 In February 2011, Johnson was a featured speaker at both the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) and the Republican Liberty Caucus.[62] At CPAC, "the crowd liked him—even as he pushed some of his more controversial points."[63] Johnson tied with New Jersey Governor Chris Christie for third in the CPAC Straw Poll, trailing only Ron Paul and Mitt Romney (and ahead of such notables as former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, former Minnesota Governor Tim Pawlenty, Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels and former Alaska Governor and 2008 vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin).[64] David Weigel of Slate called Johnson the second-biggest winner of the conference, writing that his "third-place showing in the straw poll gave Johnson his first real media hook … He met tons of reporters, commanded a small scrum after the vote, and is a slightly lighter shade of dark horse now."[65] Republican presidential candidacy[edit] On April 21, 2011 Johnson announced via Twitter, "I am running for president."[66] He followed this announcement with a speech at the New Hampshire State House in Concord, New Hampshire.[2] He was the first of an eventually large field to announce his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination.[67] Johnson again chose Ron Nielson of NSON Opinion Strategy a director for both of his New Mexico gubernatorial campaigns, as his presidential campaign manager and senior advisor.[67] The campaign was headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah where Nielson's offices are located.[67] Johnson's economics advisor was Harvard economics professor Jeffrey Miron.[68] Initially, Johnson hoped Ron Paul would not run for president so that Johnson could galvanize Paul's network of libertarian-minded voters, and he even traveled to Houston to tell Paul of his decision to run in person,[67] but Paul announced his candidacy on May 13, 2011. Johnson participated in the first of the Republican presidential debates, hosted by Fox News in South Carolina on May 5, 2011, appearing on stage with Herman Cain, Ron Paul, Tim Pawlenty, and Rick Santorum. Mitt Romney and Michele Bachmann both declined to debate. Johnson was excluded from the next three debates on June 13 (hosted by CNN in New Hampshire), August 11 (hosted by Fox News in Iowa), and September 7 (hosted by CNN in California).[67] After the first exclusion, Johnson made a 43-minute video responding to each of the debate questions, which he posted on YouTube.[67][69] The first exclusion, which was widely publicized, gave Johnson "a little bump" in name recognition and produced "a small uptick" in donations.[67] But "the long term consequences were dismal."[67] For the financial quarter ending June 30, Johnson raised a mere $180,000.[67] Fox News decided that because Johnson polled at least 2% in five recent polls, he could participate in a September 22 debate in Florida, which it co-hosted with the Florida Republican Party (the party objected to Johnson's inclusion).[67] Johnson participated, appearing on stage with Michele Bachmann, Herman Cain, Newt Gingrich, Jon Huntsman, Ron Paul, Rick Perry, Mitt Romney, and Rick Santorum. During the debate, Johnson delivered what many media outlets, including the Los Angeles Times, and Time, called the best line of the night: "My next-door neighbor's two dogs have created more shovel ready jobs than this administration."[70][71] Entertainment Weekly opined that Johnson had won the debate.[72] Libertarian presidential nomination and campaign[edit] Although Johnson had focused the majority of his campaign activities on the New Hampshire primary, he announced on November 29, 2011 that he would no longer campaign there due to his inability to gain traction with less than a month until the primary.[73] There was speculation in the media that he might run as a Libertarian Party candidate instead. Johnson acknowledged that he was considering such a move.[74][75][76] In December, Politico reported that Johnson would quit the Republican primaries and announce his intention to seek the Libertarian Party nomination at a December 28 press conference.[77] He also encouraged his supporters to vote for Ron Paul in 2012 Republican presidential primaries.[78] Gary Johnson at 2012 Libertarian National Convention On December 28, 2011, Johnson formally withdrew his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination, and declared his candidacy for the 2012 presidential nomination of the Libertarian Party in Santa Fe, New Mexico.[3] On May 5, 2012, at the 2012 Libertarian National Convention, Johnson received the Libertarian Party's official nomination for president in the 2012 election, by a vote of 419 votes to 152 votes for second-place candidate R. Lee Wrights.[1][79] In his acceptance speech, Johnson asked the convention's delegates to nominate as his running mate Judge Jim Gray of California.[80] Gray subsequently received the party's vice-presidential nomination on the first ballot.[79] Johnson spent the early months of his campaign making media appearances on television programs such as The Daily Show with Jon Stewart[81] and Red Eye w/Greg Gutfeld.[82] Starting in September 2012, Johnson embarked on a three-week tour of college campuses throughout the US.[83][84] On October 23, 2012, Gary Johnson participated in a third party debate that was aired on C-SPAN, RT America, and Al Jazeera English.[85][86] A post-debate online election allowed people to choose two candidates from the debate they thought had won to face each other head to head in a run-off debate. Gary Johnson and Jill Stein won the poll.[87] They debated in Washington, D.C., on November 5, 2012.[88] Johnson stated that his goal was to win at least 5 percent of the vote, as winning 5 percent would allow Libertarian Party candidates equal ballot access and federal funding during the next election cycle.[89][90] In a national Gallup poll of likely registered voters conducted June 7 through June 10, 2012, Johnson took 3% of the vote,[91] while a Gallup poll conducted September 6 through September 9, 2012, showed Johnson taking 1% of likely voters.[92] A Zogby poll released July 13, 2012, revealed Johnson took 5.3% of likely voters,[93] while a Zogby poll released September 23, 2012, showed Johnson taking 2% of likely voters.[94] The final results showed Johnson polling nearly 1.3 million votes and 1.0% of the popular vote.[95][96] This established a Libertarian Party record for total votes won in a presidential election and the second-highest Libertarian percentage ever, behind Ed Clark's 1.1% in 1980.[97] Despite falling short of his stated goal of 5%, Johnson stated, "Ours is a mission accomplished".[98] In regards to a future presidential bid, he said "it is too soon to be talking about 2016".[98] Post-2012 elections[edit] Since the 2012 elections, Johnson has continued to criticize the Obama administration on various issues. In an article for The Guardian, Johnson called on United States Attorney General Eric Holder to let individual states legalize marijuana.[99] In a Google Hangout hosted by Johnson in June 2013, he criticized the US government's lack of transparency and due process in regards to the NSA's domestic surveillance programs. He also said that he would not rule out running as a Republican again in the future.[100] Our America Initiative PAC[edit] In December 2013, Johnson announced the founding of his own Super PAC, Our America Initiative PAC. The Super PAC is intended to support libertarian-minded causes. “From the realities of government-run healthcare setting in to the continuing disclosures of the breadth of NSA’s domestic spying, more Americans than ever are ready to take a serious look at candidates who offer real alternatives to business-as-usual,” the release announcing the PAC said.[101] CEO of Cannabis Sativa Inc.[edit] In July 2014, Johnson was named president and CEO of Cannabis Sativa Inc., a Nevada-based company that aims primarily to sell medical cannabis products in states where medicinal and/or recreational cannabis is legal.[102][103] 2016 presidential campaign[edit] Main article: Gary Johnson presidential campaign, 2016 Gary Johnson speaking at the 2016 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in Washington, D.C. In an April 2014, Reddit "Ask Me Anything" session, Johnson stated that he hoped to run for president again in 2016.[104] On whether he would run as a Libertarian or a Republican, he stated that "I would love running as a Libertarian because I would have the least amount of explaining to do."[104] In November 2014, Johnson affirmed his intention to run for the 2016 Libertarian nomination.[105] In July 2015, Johnson reiterated his intentions for a presidential campaign but stated he was not announcing anything imminently: "I just think there are more downsides than upsides to announcing at this point, and, look, I don’t have any delusions about the process. In retrospect, 90 percent of the time I spent [trying to become president] ended up to be wasted time."[106] In January 2016, Johnson resigned from his post as CEO of Cannabis Sativa, Inc., to pursue political opportunities, hinting to a 2016 presidential run.[107] On January 6, 2016, Johnson declared that he would seek the Libertarian nomination for the presidency.[5] On May 18, Johnson named former Massachusetts Governor William Weld as his running mate.[108] On May 29, 2016, Johnson received the Libertarian nomination on the second ballot.[6] Political positions[edit] Main article: Political positions of Gary Johnson Johnson's views have been described as fiscally conservative and socially liberal[109] with a philosophy of limited government[110] and military non-interventionism.[111][112] He has identified as a classical liberal.[113] Johnson has said he favors simplifying and reducing taxes.[114] During his governorship, Johnson cut taxes fourteen times and never increased them.[115] Due to his stance on taxes, political pundit David Weigel described him as "the original Tea Party candidate."[116] Johnson has advocated for the FairTax, a proposal which would abolish all federal income, corporate and capital gains taxes, and replace them with a 23% tax on consumption of all non-essential goods, while providing a regressive rebate to households according to income level. He has argued that this would assure transparency in the tax system and incentivize the private sector to create "tens of millions of jobs."[117] In June 2016, Johnson said that he supported the Trans-Pacific Partnership.[118] Johnson has said that he supports balancing the federal budget immediately.[119] He has stated he supports "slashing government spending", including Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security,[114] which would involve cutting Medicare and Medicaid by 43 percent and turning them into block grant programs, with control of spending in the hands of the states to create, in his words, "fifty laboratories of innovation."[119] He has advocated passing a law allowing for state bankruptcy and expressly ruling out a federal bailout of any states.[110] Johnson has expressed opposition to the Federal Reserve System, which he has cited as massively devaluing the strength of the U.S. dollar, and would sign legislation to eliminate it. He has also supported an audit of the central bank, and urged Members of Congress in July 2012 to vote in favor of Ron Paul's Federal Reserve Transparency Act.[120] In his campaign for the Libertarian Party nomination, he stated he opposed foreign wars and pledged to cut the military budget by 43 percent in his first term as president.[112] He would cut the military's overseas bases, uniformed and civilian personnel, research and development, intelligence, and nuclear weapons programs.[121][122] He has stated his opposition to US involvement in the War in Afghanistan and opposed the US involvement in the Libyan Civil War.[123] He has stated that he does not believe Iran is a military threat, would use his presidential power to prevent Israel from attacking Iran, and would not follow Israel, or any other ally, into a war that it had initiated.[124] Johnson is a strong supporter of civil liberties and received the highest score of any candidate from the American Civil Liberties Union for supporting drug decriminalization while opposing censorship and regulation of the Internet, the Patriot Act, enhanced airport screenings, and the indefinite detention of prisoners.[125] He has spoken in favor of the separation of church and state, and has said that he does not "seek the counsel of God" when determining his political agenda.[126] Johnson endorsed same-sex marriage in 2011;[127] he has since called for a constitutional amendment protecting equal marriage rights,[127] and criticized Obama's position on the issue as having "thrown this question back to the states."[128] On the other hand, Johnson opposes Roe v. Wade, believing states should decide the matter. He has been a longtime advocate of legalizing marijuana and has said that if he were president, he would remove it from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act as well as issue an executive order pardoning non-violent marijuana offenders.[129] Johnson has stated his opposition to gun control and has said, "I'm a firm believer in the Second Amendment and so I would not have signed legislation banning assault weapons or automatic weapons."[130] Personal life[edit] Johnson running the 38th Annual Stratham Fair Road Race Johnson was married to Dee Johnson (née Simms; 1952–2006) from 1977 to 2005.[131] As First Lady of New Mexico, she engaged in campaigns against smoking and breast cancer,[132] and oversaw the expansion of the Governor's Mansion. He initiated a separation in May 2005 and four months later he announced that they would divorce.[133] At the age of 54, Dee Johnson died unexpectedly on December 22, 2006,[134] her cause of death later attributed to hypertensive heart disease.[135] Johnson became engaged to Santa Fe real estate agent Kate Prusack in 2009 a year after meeting her at a bike race in Sante Fe.[136] Prusack has stated that the reason they have not yet married is because "My fiance’s always on the road."[137] Johnson lives in Taos, New Mexico,[138][139] in a home that he built himself.[63] He is an avid triathlete who bikes extensively. During his term in office, he competed in several triathlons, marathons and bike races. He competed three times (1993, 1997, 1999) as a celebrity invitee at the Ironman World Championship in Hawaii, registering his best time for the 2.4-mile (3.9 km) swim, 112-mile (180 km) bike ride, and 26.2-mile (42.2 km) marathon run in 1999 with 10 hours, 39 minutes, and 16 seconds.[140][141] He once ran 100 miles (160 km) in 30 consecutive hours in the Rocky Mountains.[13] On May 30, 2003, he reached the summit of Mount Everest[142] "despite toes blackened with frostbite."[26] He has climbed all seven of the Seven Summits: Mount Everest, Mount Elbrus, Denali, Mount Kilimanjaro, Aconcagua, Mount Vinson, and Carstensz Pyramid—the tallest peaks in Asia, Europe, North America, Africa, South America, Antarctica, and Oceania respectively.[143] He completed the Bataan Memorial Death March at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, in which participants traverse a 26.2 mile course through the desert, many of them in combat boots and wearing 35-pound packs.[144] On October 12, 2005, Johnson was involved in a near-fatal paragliding accident when his wing caught in a tree and he fell approximately 50 feet to the ground. Johnson suffered multiple bone fractures, including a burst fracture to his twelfth thoracic vertebra, a broken rib, and a broken knee; this accident left him 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) shorter.[145][146][147] He used medicinal marijuana for pain control from 2005-08.[148] Johnson is a Lutheran and has stated that his belief in God has given him "a very fundamental belief that we should do unto others as we would have others do unto us."[149] Electoral history[edit] New Mexico gubernatorial election, 1994[150] Party Candidate Votes % ± Republican Gary Johnson 232,945 49.81% +4.66% Democratic Bruce King (inc.) 186,686 39.92% -14.68% Green Roberto Mondragón 47,990 10.26% Majority 46,259 9.89% +0.44% Turnout 467,621 Republican gain from Democratic Swing New Mexico gubernatorial election, 1998[151] Party Candidate Votes % ± Republican Gary Johnson (inc.) 271,948 54.53% +4.72% Democratic Martin Chávez 226,755 45.47% +5.55% Majority 45,193 9.06% -0.83% Turnout 498,703 Republican hold Swing United States presidential election, 2012[96] Election on November 6, 2012 Party Candidate Votes % ± Democratic Barack Obama (inc.) 65,899,583 51.03% -1.84% Republican Mitt Romney 60,931,966 47.19% +1.59% Libertarian Gary Johnson 1,275,821 0.99% +0.59% Green Jill Stein 468,907 0.36% +0.24% Constitution Virgil Goode 121,616 0.09% -0.06% Others Others 434,247 0.34% -0.52% Majority (1,333,513) (1.03%) Turnout 129,132,140 57.5% Democratic hold Swing Books[edit] Seven Principles of Good Government: Gary Johnson on liberty, people and politics. 2012. Aberdeen, WA: Silver Lake Publishing. ISBN 978-1563439131. OCLC 809701081 References[edit] 1.^ Jump up to: a b Pratt, Timothy (May 5, 2012). "Libertarians nominate ex-Governor Gary Johnson for president". Reuters. Retrieved May 6, 2012. 2.^ Jump up to: a b Marr, Kendra (April 21, 2011). "Gary Johnson makes 2012 presidential run official". Politico. Retrieved April 21, 2011. 3.^ Jump up to: a b Stewart, Rebecca (December 28, 2011). "'Liberated' Gary Johnson seeks Libertarian nomination". CNN. Retrieved December 28, 2011. 4.^ Jump up to: a b Tuccile, J.D. "Gary Johnson Pulls One Million Votes, One Percent". Reason. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 5.^ Jump up to: a b Collins, Eliza (January 6, 2016). "Libertarian Gary Johnson launches presidential bid". Politico. Retrieved January 6, 2016. 6.^ Jump up to: a b "Gary Johnson Wins Libertarian Nomination for President". ABC. May 29, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2016. 7.Jump up ^ Who's Who in the West 1996–1997. Marquis Who's Who. 1995. p. 421. 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The Denver Post. Retrieved 7 May 2011. 38.Jump up ^ Janofsky, Michael (October 7, 1999). "New Mexico Governor Resists Draft Efforts by Libertarians". The New York Times. 39.Jump up ^ Sullivan, Andrew (January 19, 2011). "The Tea Party On Prohibition: Lovin' It". The Atlantic. The Daily Dish. Retrieved April 21, 2011. 40.Jump up ^ Gardner, Jeffry (January 6, 2011). "More than 10 years have past since the feared 2000 disaster". Los Alamos Monitor. 41.Jump up ^ Bolduc, Brian (January 3, 2011). "2012: Year of the Libertarian?". National Review. 42.Jump up ^ Massey, Barry (September 3, 1999). "Johnson opposes independent study of private prisons". Associated Press. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 43.Jump up ^ Ayres, Jr., B. Drummond (October 23, 1998). "Democrats Renew Push in New Mexico". The New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 44.^ Jump up to: a b Ames, Mark (November 6, 2012). "The Gary Johnson Swindle and the Degradation of Third Party Politics". nsfwcorp.com. 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Retrieved January 10, 2013. 51.Jump up ^ Election Results for the U.S. President, the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives, Federal Election Commission, July 2013. 52.Jump up ^ "Libertarian Party buoyant; Greens hopeful". United Press International. Retrieved November 9, 2012. 53.^ Jump up to: a b Bill Kauffman (April 21, 2009). "The Republic Strikes Back". The American Conservative. Retrieved April 4, 2009. 54.Jump up ^ 24 Hour Newsroom (October 27, 2009). "Ex-Gov Mulls Presidential Bid". 770 KKOB AM. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2009. 55.Jump up ^ Pt 5/6 Freedom Watch Napolitano Ron Paul Lew Rockwell Gary Johnson David Boaz & more 6-24-09. YouTube. June 24, 2009. Event occurs at 1:58. Retrieved November 11, 2012. 56.Jump up ^ Johnson, Gary. "OUR America Initiative". Ouramericainitiative.com. Our America Initiative. Retrieved April 11, 2011. 57.Jump up ^ Steve Terrell (October 26, 2009). "Group wants Johnson on presidential ballot". Santa Fe New Mexican. Retrieved October 27, 2009. 58.Jump up ^ Gadi Schwartz (November 5, 2009). "Supporters call for former Gov. Johnson to run for president". KOB News 4. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved November 6, 2009. 59.Jump up ^ Hannity, Sean (May 10, 2010). "Controversial Republican Eyeing White House?". Fox News Channel. Retrieved August 31, 2010. 60.Jump up ^ Wallsten, Peter (August 9, 2010). "Washington Wire Q & A: Gary Johnson". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 31, 2010. 61.Jump up ^ Johnson, Gary (January 18, 2011). "$100 billion in spending cuts this year? How about this week!". The Daily Caller. 62.Jump up ^ Carey, Amanda (February 8, 2011). "Potential 2012 presidential candidate Gary Johnson to speak at CPAC". The Daily Caller. 63.^ Jump up to: a b Good, Chris (February 11, 2011). "Is Gary Johnson the Next Ron Paul?". The Atlantic. 64.Jump up ^ Falcone, Michael (February 12, 2011). "Ron Paul Wins 2011 CPAC Straw Poll, Sarah Palin Finishes a Distant 9th Place". ABC News. 65.Jump up ^ Weigel, David (February 14, 2011). "Who Won CPAC?". Slate. 66.Jump up ^ Kapur, Sahil (April 21, 2011). "Pro-pot, anti-war Republican Gary Johnson running for president". The Raw Story. Retrieved April 21, 2011. 67.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j Lisa Depaulo (November 2011). "Is This the Sanest Man Running for President?". GQ. Condé Nast. 68.Jump up ^ "Johnson Key Staff and Advisers". Politico.com. Politico LLC. Retrieved July 2, 2012. 69.Jump up ^ Conor Friesdorf (June 15, 2011). "Gary Johnson Crashes the N.H. Republican Debate". The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group. 70.Jump up ^ Michael Muskal (September 23, 2011). "Gary Johnson cleaning up with his dog poop quip". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Newspapers. 71.Jump up ^ Michael Scherer (September 23, 2011). "What You Missed While Not Watching the Fox News/Google Debate". Time. 72.Jump up ^ Jeff Labrecque (September 23, 2011). "Gary Johnson and neighbor's two dogs win Republican presidential debate". Entertainment Weekly. 73.Jump up ^ Fortier, Mark (November 29, 2011). "Gary Johnson Throws in the Towel in NH". Portsmouth Patch. Retrieved January 8, 2012. 74.Jump up ^ Moran, Andrew (November 29, 2011). "Gov. Gary Johnson may run for U.S. President as a Libertarian". Digital Journal. Retrieved December 1, 2011. 75.Jump up ^ Friedersdorf, Conor (November 30, 2011). "Will Gary Johnson Seek the Libertarian Party's Nomination?". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 1, 2011. 76.Jump up ^ "Interview with Gary Johnson". Liberty Underground / 1787 Network. December 2, 2011. 77.Jump up ^ Epstein, Reid J. (December 20, 2011). "Johnson to run as Libertarian". Politico. 78.Jump up ^ Steve Nelson; Will Rahn. "Gary Johnson encourages supporters to vote for Ron Paul in GOP primaries". The Daily Caller. Retrieved December 28, 2011. 79.^ Jump up to: a b Winger, Richard (May 5, 2012). "Gary Johnson Nominated by Libertarian Party on First Ballot". Ballot Access News. Retrieved May 5, 2012. 80.Jump up ^ Moxley, R. Scott (May 5, 2012). "Libertarian Presidential Candidate Gary Johnson: Give Me Orange County's Jim Gray as VP". OC Weekly. Retrieved May 6, 2012. 81.Jump up ^ Puditty (Jun 5, 2012). "Gary Johnson visits 'The Daily Show with Jon Stewart'". Allvoices.com. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 82.Jump up ^ Crugnale, James (June 6, 2012). "Penn Jillette & Gary Johnson Lament NY’s Marijuana Decriminalization Doesn’t Go Far Enough". Mediaite. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 83.Jump up ^ Walsh, Kenneth (September 11, 2012). "Gary Johnson Could Spoil Romney's Chances". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 84.Jump up ^ Rose, Joel (September 26, 2012). "Libertarian Candidate Could Be Election Spoiler". NPR. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 85.Jump up ^ "Presidential Hopefuls Meet in Third Party Debate". PBS NewsHour. October 25, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012. 86.Jump up ^ Derek Rosenfeld (October 25, 2012). "Larry King Hosts Third Party Debate: Presidential Candidates Slam the Drug War". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 2, 2012. 87.Jump up ^ Josh Hicks (October 26, 2012). "Gary Johnson and Jill Stein will debate one-on-one". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 2, 2012. 88.Jump up ^ Jack Kenny (November 5, 2012). "Johnson, Stein in Election Eve Debate". Mashable. Retrieved November 5, 2012. 89.Jump up ^ Karoun Demirjian (October 5, 2012). "Libertarian candidate makes push for Nevada’s Ron Paul supporters". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved November 2, 2012. 90.Jump up ^ Lucas Eaves (November 1, 2012). "Why 5% matters to Gary Johnson". Independent Voter Network. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 91.Jump up ^ Jones, Jeffrey (July 6, 2012). "Little Support for Third-Party Candidates in 2012 Election". Gallup. Retrieved January 10, 2012. 92.Jump up ^ Newport, Frank (September 12, 2012). "Gary Johnson scores at 5.3% nationally against Obama and Romney". Watchdog.org. Retrieved January 10, 2012. 93.Jump up ^ Nikolewski, Rob (July 14, 2012). "Gary Johnson scores at 5.3% nationally against Obama and Romney". Watchdog.org. Retrieved January 10, 2012. 94.Jump up ^ Newport, Frank (September 23, 2012). "A New Zogby Poll Romney Loses Ground, Now Down By 8 Points; Wrong Track Voters At 52%". JZ Analytics. Retrieved January 10, 2012. 95.Jump up ^ "US President – Popular Vote". Our Campaigns. 96.^ Jump up to: a b Dave Leip. "2012 Presidential General Election Results". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 97.Jump up ^ Blake, Aaron; Sullivan, Sean (November 20, 2012). "The GOP’s growing Libertarian problem". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 98.^ Jump up to: a b Weber, Joseph (November 7, 2012). "Johnson satisfied with presidential run, mum on future bid for office". Fox News Channel. Retrieved November 15, 2012. 99.Jump up ^ Johnson, Gary (March 9, 2013). "Let states legalise marijuana, Eric Holder: you know it makes sense". The Guardian. Retrieved August 12, 2013. 100.Jump up ^ Evans, Zenon (June 12, 2013). "Gary Johnson Weighs in on NSA, Says He's Open to Running As a Republican Again". Reason. Retrieved August 12, 2013. 101.Jump up ^ Reichbach, Matthew (December 11, 2013). "Gary Johnson launches Super PAC". New Mexico Telegram. Retrieved January 5, 2014. 102.Jump up ^ Goldsmith, Alex (July 1, 2014). "Gary Johnson to head marijuana company". KRQE.com. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 103.Jump up ^ Roller, Emma (July 2, 2014). "Gary Johnson Is Now CEO of a Marijuana Company. And He Wants to Run for President.". National Journal. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 104.^ Jump up to: a b Roller, Emma (April 23, 2014). "Remember Gary Johnson? He Wants to Run for President Again.". National Journal. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014. 105.Jump up ^ Gillespie, Nick (November 4, 2014). "Gary Johnson: "I'll Run in 2016 to Provide Libertarian Option" That Rand Paul Doesn't Offer". Reason.com. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 106.Jump up ^ Gillespie, Nick; Bragg, Meredith (July 16, 2015). "Gary Johnson on Trump, the Presidential Election, and Life as a Pot Company CEO: Johnson says he wants nothing to do with the GOP". Reason Foundation. 107.Jump up ^ "Gary Johnson resigns his position as CEO of Cannabis Sativa, Inc.", Independent Political Report. January 4, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2016. 108.Jump up ^ DeCosta-Klipa, Nick (May 18, 2016). "Former Massachusetts Gov. Bill Weld confirmed as Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson’s VP". boston.com. Retrieved May 19, 2016. 109.Jump up ^ Haq, Husna (April 21, 2011). "Election 101: Who is Gary Johnson?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 110.^ Jump up to: a b Bolduc, Brian (January 3, 2011). "2012: Year of the Libertarian?". National Review. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 111.Jump up ^ "Don’t Forget Gary Johnson! How the Libertarian Could Shake Up 2012". The Daily Beast. May 6, 2012. 112.^ Jump up to: a b Brian Doherty (April 11, 2012). "Gary Johnson's Foreign Policy: Libertarian or "Strange"?". Reason. 113.Jump up ^ Toole, John (September 25, 2011). "Johnson campaign tests GOP support for 'classical liberal'". The Eagle-Tribune. Retrieved July 28, 2012. 114.^ Jump up to: a b Glover, Mike (September 8, 2010). "Former NM gov is little known but has big ideas". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 115.Jump up ^ Quigley, Bernie (February 10, 2011). "Prelude to a nervous breakdown; New Mexico's Gary Johnson rises". The Hill. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 116.Jump up ^ Weigel, David (September 8, 2010). "America's Next Top Libertarian". Slate. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 117.Jump up ^ Quinn, Garrett (August 22, 2012). "Fair Tax Gives Gary Johnson Some Hiccups On The Trail". Reason. Retrieved November 12, 2012. 118.Jump up ^ "Think You’ve Got It Locked, Hillary? Meet Jill Stein.". POLITICO Magazine. Retrieved 2016-06-19. 119.^ Jump up to: a b Klein, Rick (April 22, 2011). "Gary Johnson: 'From Obscurity to Prominence' in New Hampshire". ABC News. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 120.Jump up ^ "Gov. Gary Johnson Sends Letter To House Of Representatives". garyjohnson2012.com. July 23, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2012. 121.Jump up ^ Interview with Gov. Gary Johnson, LP presidential candidate, on Foreign Policy. YouTube. April 2011. Event occurs at 6:00. 122.Jump up ^ John Vaught LaBeaume (September 1, 2011). "Gov. Gary: Cut defense, quit subsidizing Eurocare". Washington Examiner. 123.Jump up ^ Friedersdorf, Conor (April 22, 2011). "The Zen of Gary Johnson". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 124.Jump up ^ Interview with Gov. Gary Johnson, LP presidential candidate, on Foreign Policy. YouTube. April 2011. Event occurs at 4:30. 125.Jump up ^ "Gary Johnson Braves the ACLU; The Libertarian presidential candidate charms a gathering of civil libertarians". Reason. January 31, 2012. 126.Jump up ^ Landsberg, Mitchell (October 17, 2012). "Atheist group gives Obama an unenthusiastic nod over Romney". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 23, 2012. 127.^ Jump up to: a b Riggs, Mike (May 10, 2012). "Gary Johnson on Obama's Gay Marriage Remarks: "I guess the President is still more worried about losing Ohio, Colorado, North Carolina and Virginia than he is in doing the right thing"". Reason. Retrieved May 21, 2012. 128.Jump up ^ Scarboro, Aaron. "Why America Needs Gary Johnson". The Guardian Express. Retrieved November 11, 2012. 129.Jump up ^ Riggs, Mike. "Gary Johnson on "Defanging" the DEA, Pardoning Marijuana Offenders, and Standing With Occupy Wall Street". Reason. Retrieved October 19, 2011. 130.Jump up ^ Downs, Ray (November 6, 2012). "Presidential candidate Gary Johnson talks guns, for-profit prisons". WAFB. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 131.Jump up ^ Haq, Husna. "Election 101: Who is Gary Johnson?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved May 7, 2011. 132.Jump up ^ Olson, Sean (December 24, 2006). "Ex-N.M. First Lady Dies; Dee Johnson Fought for Women's and Children's Issues". Abqjournal.com. Retrieved July 2, 2012. 133.Jump up ^ Linthicum, Leslie (September 29, 2005). "Ex-Gov. Johnson, Wife Are Divorcing". Albuquerque Journal. (subscription required) 134.Jump up ^ Olson, Sean (December 24, 2006). "Ex-N.M. First Lady Dies; Dee Johnson Fought for Women's and Children's Issues". Albuquerque Journal. (subscription required) 135.Jump up ^ Linthicum, Leslie (February 10, 2007). "Former First Lady Died of Heart Disease". Albuquerque Journal.(subscription required) 136.Jump up ^ Pappas, Alex (May 23, 2011). "Meet Kate Prusack, Gary Johnson's fiancé". The Daily Caller. Retrieved June 1, 2011. 137.Jump up ^ Pappas, Alex (May 23, 2011). "Meet Kate Prusack, Gary Johnson’s fiancé". The Daily Caller. Retrieved June 23, 2016. 138.Jump up ^ Klein, Rick; Simmons, Gregory (February 10, 2011). "You Say You Want a Revolution?". ABC News. Retrieved June 1, 2011. 139.Jump up ^ Linthicum, Leslie (January 3, 2010). "You Say You Want a Revolution?". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved June 1, 2011. 140.Jump up ^ Mallozzi, Vincent M. (October 12, 1997). "Famous Just Doesn't Make It". The New York Times. 141.Jump up ^ "New Mexico Governor to Compete in Ironman Utah". World Triathlon Corporation. June 3, 2002. 142.Jump up ^ "Former governor scales Mount Everest". Lawrence Journal-World Online Edition (Lawrence, Kansas). Associated Press. June 8, 2003. Retrieved April 21, 2011. 143.Jump up ^ "Gary Johnson summits Mount Vinson". Independent Political Report. Retrieved January 30, 2015. 144.Jump up ^ Corjulo, Michael (August 9, 2011). "GOP Presidential Hopefuls Go To Ames, Gary Johnson Rides a Bike". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 145.Jump up ^ Navrot, Miguel (October 24, 2005). "Ex-Governor Johnson Injured While Paragliding". Albuquerque Journal. (subscription required) 146.Jump up ^ Toole, John (September 9, 2011). "Johnson campaign tests GOP support for 'classical liberal'". eagletribune.com. The Eagle-Tribune. Retrieved July 12, 2014. 147.Jump up ^ Moody, Chris (2011-09-21). "Unorthodox GOP candidate Gary Johnson gets his chance in Orlando debate". Yahoo! News. Yahoo!. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 148.Jump up ^ McCormack, John (December 6, 2010). "Gov. Gary Johnson: I Smoked Marijuana from 2005 to 2008". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved April 21, 2011. 149.Jump up ^ "Gary Johnson Candidate Profile". Reason. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012. 150.Jump up ^ "Canvass of Returns of General Election Held on November 8, 1994 – State of New Mexico" (PDF). 151.Jump up ^ "State of New Mexico Official 1998 General Election Results for Governor Of New Mexico". Archived from the original on November 30, 2008. Further reading[edit] 2001 and 2002 State of the State speeches from stateline.org Failure-to-Launch, Nick Heil, Outside, September 12, 2011 Republican Presidential Candidate Gary Johnson On Technology, Benjamin Kuo, socalTECH.com, November 2011 External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gary Johnson. Wikinews has related news: GOP presidential candidate Gary Johnson considers Libertarian Party run Wikinews has related news: U.S. presidential candidate Gary Johnson leaves GOP to vie for the LP nom Wikinews has related news: Wikinews interviews former New Mexico governor Gary Johnson, presidential nominee of the Libertarian Party 2016 campaign website Profile at Project Vote Smart Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission Appearances on C-SPAN Financial information at OpenSecrets.org Party political offices Preceded by Frank Bond Republican nominee for Governor of New Mexico 1994, 1998 Succeeded by John Sanchez Preceded by Bob Barr Libertarian nominee for President of the United States 2012, 2016 Most recent Political offices Preceded by Bruce King Governor of New Mexico 1995–2003 Succeeded by Bill Richardson [show] v · t · e Gary Johnson Garyjohnsonphoto - modified.jpg [show] v · t · e Governors of New Mexico Great seal of the state of New Mexico.png [show] v · t · e (2008 ←) United States presidential election, 2012 (→ 2016) [show] v · t · e (2012 ←) United States presidential election, 2016 (→ 2020) [show] v · t · e United States Libertarian Party [show] v · t · e Libertarianism Authority control WorldCat Identities · VIAF: 63588414 · LCCN: no95004463 Categories: Gary Johnson 1953 births 21st-century American politicians American cannabis activists American chief executives American classical liberals American construction businesspeople American gun rights advocates American libertarians American male writers American people of Russian descent American people of Ukrainian descent American political writers American summiters of Mount Everest American triathletes Drug policy reform activists Governors of New Mexico Libertarian Party (United States) presidential nominees Living people Lutherans New Mexico Libertarians New Mexico Republicans People from Albuquerque, New Mexico People from Minot, North Dakota People from Santa Fe, New Mexico People from Taos, New Mexico Republican Party state governors of the United States United States presidential candidates, 2012 United States presidential candidates, 2016 University of New Mexico alumni Navigation menu Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page Print/export Create a book Download as PDF Printable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Languages العربية Bân-lâm-gú Čeština Dansk Deutsch Español Esperanto فارسی Français 한국어 Bahasa Indonesia Italiano עברית Latviešu Nederlands 日本語 Norsk bokmål Polski Português Русский Simple English Suomi Svenska Türkçe Українська Tiếng Việt 中文 Edit links This page was last modified on 24 July 2016, at 14:46. 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Wednesday, June 29, 2016

STEPP FOR YOU!

Press ? for keyboard shortcuts. Close Ad Mail  Contacts  Calendar  Notepad  Messenger  News Feed   Press the Enter key to select an item Compose Add another mailbox Inbox (9999+)  Drafts (199) Sent Archive Spam (213)  Trash  Smart Views  Folders    Recent    Move Delete Not Spam More     Jim Gray for Kentucky   Keep Opposing It: Why The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Is So Bad, For Those Who Are Asking   The Pen To kenneth_stepp@yahoo.com Jun 28 at 1:39 PM Dear Friends and Activists, There are surely people on our distribution list more informed about the corrupt Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) than even ourselves. But at the same time a number of people have asked for more information. As long as we have been fighting it, the corporate interests pushing it have never relented either, and only need one moment of inattentiveness or complacency on our part to do their dirty work. Most troubling is the fact that the Democratic party platform has now given a green light blessing for its members of Congress to go rogue in defiance of the clear will of the people. It is nothing short of despicable. Please continue to speak out and share the action page in every possible way. What Part Of No TPP Don't You Get? Action Page: https://www.utalk.us/?a=no_TPP OK . . . let's dig in. And if you go to the action page now, we have added three ref links for more information about everything that is wrong with it. In the first place, the TPP is for the most part not a trade agreement at all. Instead, it is a grand manifesto of corporate rights as being superior to any national interest or the people of any nation, a further escalation of the installation of business corporations as the unchallenged sovereign over the planet. This is reflected most odiously in the extensive chapter on so-called Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS). The title itself has evil baked into it, presuming a priori that business corporations even HAVE sovereignty standing on a par with a nation state, such that there should even BE a dispute about whether they are bound to follow that nation's laws. So for example, let's say a Canadian pipeline company doesn't like the fact that their proposal for a certain to leak pipeline, carrying the most foul and toxic petroleum sludge ever through pristine natural aquifers, has been rejected by our duly elected representatives. This is not some far-fetched hypothetical. They have already FILED such a suit under existing, but weaker, ISDS type provisions in previous bad "trade" agreements. Under the TPP, the "dispute" would go to a kangaroo court tribunal of corporate lawyers with no accountability to any national judicial authority, and granted the power to override our own courts. So Trans-Canada gets to stick their smelly pipeline up our butts whether we like it our not. And what corporate attorney wouldn't love the unilateral prerogative to do that? But that's just the rotten core. Other provisions that have nothing to do per se with trade expand monopoly rights of pharmaceutical companies, gut food safety and environmental laws, demolish international financial regulation, further accelerate job export to the lowest common denominator wage base. You name it, if there is anything any greedy corporation has ever done to try to wreck our safety, security or prosperity, and seize all power unto themselves it's in there. The more you know, the more you will be outraged that this is still even being considered. How dare the Democratic party platform take the non-position that there is a "diversity of views" over the TPP? This is nothing but license for the worst corporate toadies in the Democratic party to gang up with Republicans to sneak this through in the lame duck session. That's the most despicable part of it. Those miserable duplicitous cowards don't dare bring it up now. They'd all get booted out on their ears in the coming election and they perfectly well know it. No, they're going lie to us, and lull us, and stick it to us after the election is over. We will never have more leverage over candidate Clinton that we have right now, leading up to the convention. Do we really have to twist her arm now to adopt her OWN stated position in her OWN platform? Apparently we do. And we need every person who has ever spoken out on this to not only do so again, but to also recruit 10 more people to do so. Here are the social media sharing links again. Submit EACH of them EVERY day, customize to taste, and keep it up. #noTPP on Twitter: https://www.utalk.us/no_TPP.php?s=twitter #noTPP on Facebook: https://www.utalk.us/no_TPP.php?s=facebook #noTPP on Google Plus: https://www.utalk.us/no_TPP.php?s=google And after you submit the action page, feel free to request one of our "Expressway To Trade Hell TPP" bumper stickers. Of you can get one directly from this page for a contribution of any amount. Trade Hell bumper stickers: http://www.utalk.us/?g=1:SE And if you want us to send you one for FREE, just email back with your mailing address, and we'll get it right out. Of course if you can make a donation, this is what makes it possible for us to send free stickers to anyone who cannot make a contributions right now. Donations page: https://www.utalk.us/?p=donate You may forward this message to any friends who would find it important. Contributions to The People's Email Network or ActBlue are not tax-deductible for federal income tax purposes. If you would like to be added to our distribution list, go to http://www.peaceteam.net/in.htm Or if don't want to receive our messages, just go to http://www.peaceteam.net/out.htm usalone978b:236898

Let's stop TPP

Press ? for keyboard shortcuts. Close Ad Mail  Contacts  Calendar  Notepad  Messenger  News Feed   Press the Enter key to select an item Compose Add another mailbox Inbox (9999+)  Drafts (199) Sent Archive Spam (213)  Trash  Smart Views  Folders    Recent    Move Delete Not Spam More     Jim Gray for Kentucky   Keep Opposing It: Why The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Is So Bad, For Those Who Are Asking   The Pen To kenneth_stepp@yahoo.com Jun 28 at 1:39 PM Dear Friends and Activists, There are surely people on our distribution list more informed about the corrupt Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) than even ourselves. But at the same time a number of people have asked for more information. As long as we have been fighting it, the corporate interests pushing it have never relented either, and only need one moment of inattentiveness or complacency on our part to do their dirty work. Most troubling is the fact that the Democratic party platform has now given a green light blessing for its members of Congress to go rogue in defiance of the clear will of the people. It is nothing short of despicable. Please continue to speak out and share the action page in every possible way. What Part Of No TPP Don't You Get? Action Page: https://www.utalk.us/?a=no_TPP OK . . . let's dig in. And if you go to the action page now, we have added three ref links for more information about everything that is wrong with it. In the first place, the TPP is for the most part not a trade agreement at all. Instead, it is a grand manifesto of corporate rights as being superior to any national interest or the people of any nation, a further escalation of the installation of business corporations as the unchallenged sovereign over the planet. This is reflected most odiously in the extensive chapter on so-called Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS). The title itself has evil baked into it, presuming a priori that business corporations even HAVE sovereignty standing on a par with a nation state, such that there should even BE a dispute about whether they are bound to follow that nation's laws. So for example, let's say a Canadian pipeline company doesn't like the fact that their proposal for a certain to leak pipeline, carrying the most foul and toxic petroleum sludge ever through pristine natural aquifers, has been rejected by our duly elected representatives. This is not some far-fetched hypothetical. They have already FILED such a suit under existing, but weaker, ISDS type provisions in previous bad "trade" agreements. Under the TPP, the "dispute" would go to a kangaroo court tribunal of corporate lawyers with no accountability to any national judicial authority, and granted the power to override our own courts. So Trans-Canada gets to stick their smelly pipeline up our butts whether we like it our not. And what corporate attorney wouldn't love the unilateral prerogative to do that? But that's just the rotten core. Other provisions that have nothing to do per se with trade expand monopoly rights of pharmaceutical companies, gut food safety and environmental laws, demolish international financial regulation, further accelerate job export to the lowest common denominator wage base. You name it, if there is anything any greedy corporation has ever done to try to wreck our safety, security or prosperity, and seize all power unto themselves it's in there. The more you know, the more you will be outraged that this is still even being considered. How dare the Democratic party platform take the non-position that there is a "diversity of views" over the TPP? This is nothing but license for the worst corporate toadies in the Democratic party to gang up with Republicans to sneak this through in the lame duck session. That's the most despicable part of it. Those miserable duplicitous cowards don't dare bring it up now. They'd all get booted out on their ears in the coming election and they perfectly well know it. No, they're going lie to us, and lull us, and stick it to us after the election is over. We will never have more leverage over candidate Clinton that we have right now, leading up to the convention. Do we really have to twist her arm now to adopt her OWN stated position in her OWN platform? Apparently we do. And we need every person who has ever spoken out on this to not only do so again, but to also recruit 10 more people to do so. Here are the social media sharing links again. Submit EACH of them EVERY day, customize to taste, and keep it up. #noTPP on Twitter: https://www.utalk.us/no_TPP.php?s=twitter #noTPP on Facebook: https://www.utalk.us/no_TPP.php?s=facebook #noTPP on Google Plus: https://www.utalk.us/no_TPP.php?s=google And after you submit the action page, feel free to request one of our "Expressway To Trade Hell TPP" bumper stickers. Of you can get one directly from this page for a contribution of any amount. Trade Hell bumper stickers: http://www.utalk.us/?g=1:SE And if you want us to send you one for FREE, just email back with your mailing address, and we'll get it right out. Of course if you can make a donation, this is what makes it possible for us to send free stickers to anyone who cannot make a contributions right now. Donations page: https://www.utalk.us/?p=donate You may forward this message to any friends who would find it important. Contributions to The People's Email Network or ActBlue are not tax-deductible for federal income tax purposes. If you would like to be added to our distribution list, go to http://www.peaceteam.net/in.htm Or if don't want to receive our messages, just go to http://www.peaceteam.net/out.htm usalone978b:236898

Friday, June 24, 2016

Brexit it is.

Referendum of the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union Last updated Jun 24 at 2:11 AM Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union? 100.0% Reporting Votes Remain a member of the European Union 48.1% 16,141,241 Leave the European Unioncheck 51.9% 17,410,742 Feedback

Thursday, June 23, 2016

Shall we Brexit, old chap?

Referendum of the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union Last updated Jun 23 at 10:22 PM Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union? 36.7% Reporting Votes Remain a member of the European Union 49.3% 4,955,129 Leave the European Union 50.7% 5,105,590

Brexit?

Let' Referendum of the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union Last updated Jun 23 at 8:58 PM Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union? 5.2% Reporting Votes Remain a member of the European Union 48.9% 661,694 Leave the European Union 51.1% 691,415s Ditch Mitch.

Brexit?

Referendum of the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union Last updated Jun 23 at 8:20 PM Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union? 2.6% Reporting Votes Remain a member of the European Union 48.4% 280,820 Leave the European Union 51.6% 299,598

Friday, June 17, 2016

Howard Stern looks at plans to disarm the intended victims of terrorists.

Howard Stern Explodes Gun Control Logic Share this Tweet this Google + Email this June 17, 2016 9:38 am Second Amendment ‘You get a f—ing nutty commander in chief, and you’d better be armed’ (WND) - Famous shock jock Howard Stern just blew gun-control arguments out of the water with a masterful analogy about American sheep under attack by vicious terrorist wolves. Imagine you’re a defenseless sheep in a pasture filled with hundreds of other sheep, all like sitting ducks when a bloodthirsty wolf appears in the dead of night. URGENT: We need you to drop what you’re doing, click here, and send your Congressional Demand to Stop Disarming America Fax Blast to ALL 535 Members of Congress right now! And you hope the shepherds and sheep dogs will protect you and your family from the ruthless beasts – which are slaughtering and eating all your neighbors. But there’s a big problem. The shepherds and sheep dogs are nowhere in sight. They’re protecting other defenseless sheep on the other side of the pasture. What do you do? You whip out your pistol or AR-15 and blast the savage wolves into oblivion – because that’s the only way innocent lives will be saved. Stern ripped into gun-control advocates who would deprive the American people – the innocent, unsuspecting sheep – of their ability to protect themselves from terrorist wolves, especially after Muslim shooter Omar Mateen massacred 49 people at a gun-free nightclub and injured 53 more on June 12: “I’m so upset about Orlando and what went down,” he said. “But I can’t believe these people who come out afterward, and their answer to Orlando is to take away guns from the public. It’s f—ing mindblowing to me. … “The military – and they don’t mean it as a derogatory statement – but they look at the public as sheep. And think about it. We are sheep. Most of us sit around all day. We don’t know how to defend ourselves. We are in a flock. And we basically think everything’s OK. Except the wolves, the bad guys – whether they be ISIS or terrorists, homegrown or otherwise, ISIL, Daesh, the common thug, whatever. They’re wolves. They look at them as wolves. “The military and police look at themselves as sheep dogs. They’re warriors, but they’re on the good side. You know, they’re protecting us. … “It’s such a perfect analogy. And people go, ‘Well, if we take away [the guns].’ Now think about this, in France, they have the tightest gun-control laws on the planet. The terrorists all had AR-15s. They have Glocks. They have every kind of pistol. They’ve got missile launchers. “Now let’s use the analogy of sheep. Now we’re all here. We’re sheep. We’re sitting here, ‘La, da, da, da, da. I’m gonna work hard. I love my family. Baaah!’ “Now let’s say I walked up to a sheep herd. And they know at night, every night the wolves pick off a couple of them. What if I went up to the sheep and said, ‘You want to have a shot at the wolves? I’m gonna give you a pistol. You can actually even the playing field with these wolves whose fangs are out – you could shoot them and save your family.’ ‘Well, Baaah, we’re not gonna do that! We don’t want to fight ba-a-a-a-a-ck. He didn’t hurt us. He only hurt the family down the street. And the shepherds will protect us. The sheep dogs are out there. They’ll protect us.’ “Well, the sheep dogs are protecting you, but some of them can’t be with you. There’s not a sheep dog for every citizen, and a wolf is still eating one of you every night. ‘Baaah, I know what. Let’s remove all the guns from the sheep.’ What? There’s an idea! Let’s take back all the guns from the people who might be willing to shoot the wolves. “So then you go, wait a second. What if we had a completely gun-free zone? “Now, I’m gonna tell you about the most gun-free zone on the planet. It happened during 9/11. It was on a plane. You know you can’t get a gun on a plane. It’s completely gun free. So what did the wolves do? They said, ‘This is great! We’ll just kill the sheep with box cutters. They went on the plane with box cutters, and all the sheep went, ‘Baaah!’ “Now if there had been an Air Marshal on that plane, a whole f—ing other thing would have gone down. There wouldn’t have been no 9/11. “See, the wolves are always plotting. They’ll use box cutters. They’ll use an airplane and fly it right into a building. They don’t need AR-15s. “Nazi Germany – which, by the way, didn’t happen 1,000 years ago – it happened within my dad’s lifetime. It’s not that long ago. Can you imagine if the Jews, at least when the Nazis were banging on the door, if they had a couple of pistols and AR-15s to fight the Nazis? If Anne Frank’s father had a f—ing gun? Maybe at least he could have taken a few Nazis out. “Now why would the sheep say, ‘Oh, we’ve got an answer to all of the terrorism, all these bad wolves that are coming after us. We’ll just hand in all our guns. We’re gonna hand them in. Baaah. You know who will protect us? The government, or the police’? “That’s a bad f—ing idea! “Now I don’t like violence. I don’t like any of this stuff, but I consider myself a sheep. And I want the police to protect me. I support the police. I want the government to protect me. “But guess what? Most of your politicians all have private security. … So they’re OK. Those are sheep that are very well protected. You, on the other hand, you’re a sitting duck. If you’re a sitting duck, do you want a fighting chance or not? I don’t understand it. “I’ll tell you the truth. I’m not real good at protecting [myself]. You can give me 5,000 guns. I wouldn’t be good at protecting myself. I’m just a sheep. I’ll admit it. But I’m not for taking away people’s rights. “I think the answer doesn’t lie in taking any kind of ability of the sheep to protect themselves from the wolves. I really don’t. I wish it were that simple. In France, they’ve done it very effectively. The population is not armed, but unfortunately the wolves are. … Listen, the kids at the Boston Marathon, they just made a bomb.” Later in the show, Stern said Americans had better not just assume they can rely on their military. “The military takes orders from their commander in chief,” he said. “You get a f—ing nutty commander in chief, and you’d better be armed. Because what the f— is gonna happen then?” Noting that the “nutty” president could turn on Americans, Stern added: “That’s what happened when Hitler came to power.” http://www.wnd.com/2016/06/howard-stern-explodes-gun-control-logic/ Correction Please! According to the 911 Commission book summary that I listened to on audiodisc, there were never any box cutters associated with 911, the terrorists took knives on board the victims' planes. "Trust me, I'm from the government" said someone.

Friday, June 10, 2016

Trans Pacific Partnership

Criticism[edit] In February 2016, UN's human rights expert Alfred de Zayas said that the TPP was fundamentally flawed and was based on an outdated model of trade pacts, and that governments should not sign or ratify the TPP.[101][102] According to de Zayas, the international human rights regime imposes, on countries, binding legal obligations, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and trade must be done under the human rights regime. Under the ISDS in the TPP, investors can sue a government, while a government cannot sue investors. De Zayas argued that this asymmetry made the system unfair. He added that international law, including accountability and transparency, must prevail over trade pacts.[101] Nobel Memorial Prize-winning economist, Paul Krugman, reported, "... I'll be undismayed and even a bit relieved if the T.P.P. just fades away", and said that "... there isn't a compelling case for this deal, from either a global or a national point of view." Krugman also noted the absence of "anything like a political consensus in favor, abroad or at home."[103] Secrecy of negotiations[edit] In 2012, critics such as Public Citizen's Global Trade Watch, a consumer advocacy group, called for more open negotiations in regard to the agreement. U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk responded that he believes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) conducted "the most engaged and transparent process as we possibly could", but that "some measure of discretion and confidentiality" are needed "to preserve negotiating strength and to encourage our partners to be willing to put issues on the table they may not otherwise."[104] He dismissed the "tension" as natural and noted that when the Free Trade Area of the Americas drafts were released, negotiators were subsequently unable to reach a final agreement.[104] On 23 May 2012, United States Senator Ron Wyden (D-OR) introduced S. 3225, which would have required the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative to disclose its TPP documents to all members of Congress.[105] If it had passed, Wyden said that S3225 would clarify the intent of 2002 legislation. That legislation was supposed to increase Congressional access to information about USTR activity; however, according to Wyden, the bill is being incorrectly interpreted by the USTR as a justification to excessively limit such access.[106] Wyden said: The majority of Congress is being kept in the dark as to the substance of the TPP negotiations, while representatives of U.S. corporations—like Halliburton, Chevron, PHRMA, Comcast, and the Motion Picture Association of America—are being consulted and made privy to details of the agreement. […] More than two months after receiving the proper security credentials, my staff is still barred from viewing the details of the proposals that USTR is advancing. We hear that the process by which TPP is being negotiated has been a model of transparency. I disagree with that statement.[106] In 2013, Senator Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass) and Rep. Alan Grayson (D-Fla.) were among a group of congressional lawmakers who criticized the Obama administration's secrecy policies on the Trans-Pacific Pact.[107][108][109] Warren reiterated her opposition in a speech and press release, just days before a scheduled vote.[110] A 2015 round of negotiations was scheduled for Vancouver, Canada, but two weeks before the commencement date, Ottawa, was selected as the new meeting venue and inquiries from public interest groups about attending this round were ignored.[111] In December 2014 Senator (I-VT) Bernie Sanders denounced the TPP: Let’s be clear: the TPP is much more than a "free trade" agreement. It is part of a global race to the bottom to boost the profits of large corporations and Wall Street by outsourcing jobs; undercutting worker rights; dismantling labor, environmental, health, food safety and financial laws; and allowing corporations to challenge our laws in international tribunals rather than our own court system. If TPP was such a good deal for America, the administration should have the courage to show the American people exactly what is in this deal, instead of keeping the content of the TPP a secret.[112] Michael R. Wessel, former commissioner on the U.S. Trade Deficit Review Commission said in May 2015 that "cleared advisors" like himself were "prohibited from sharing publicly the criticisms we’ve lodged about specific proposals and approaches". He said that only portions of the text had been provided, "to be read under the watchful eye of a USTR official", that access on secure government-run website did not contain the most-up-to-date information, and that for cleared advisors to get that information, he had "to travel to certain government facilities and sign in to read the materials" and "even then, the administration determines what we can and cannot review and, often, they provide carefully edited summaries rather than the actual underlying text, which is critical to really understanding the consequences of the agreement."[113] In June 2015, Senator (R-KY) Rand Paul opposed fast-tracking the TPP bill on the basis of secrecy. Paul explained that fast-tracking the secret trade partnership would "give the permission to do something you haven’t seen", which he likened to "[putting] the cart before the horse."[114] Intellectual property[edit] Further information: Trans-Pacific Partnership intellectual property provisions Wikisource has original text related to this article: What Is the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP)? As of December 2011 some provisions relating to the enforcement of patents and copyrights alleged to be present in the US proposal for the agreement had been criticised as being excessively restrictive, beyond those in the Korea–US trade agreement and Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA).[115][116] The Electronic Frontier Foundation[116] was highly critical of the leaked draft chapter on intellectual property covering copyright, trademarks, and patents. In the US, they believed this was likely to further entrench controversial aspects of US copyright law (such as the Digital Millennium Copyright Act) and restrict the ability of Congress to engage in domestic law reform to meet the evolving IP needs of American citizens and the innovative technology sector. Standardization of copyright provisions by other signatories would also require significant changes to other countries' copyright laws. These, according to EFF, include obligations for countries to expand copyright terms, restrict fair use, adopt criminal sanctions for copyright infringement that is done without a commercial motivation (ex. file sharing of copyrighted digital media), place greater liability on internet intermediaries, escalate protections for digital locks and create new threats for journalists and whistleblowers.[116] Both the copyright term expansion and the non-complaint provision (i.e., competent authorities may initiate legal action without the need for a formal complaint) previously failed to pass in Japan because they were so controversial.[117] In early 2015 "A group of artists, archivists, academics, and activists ... in Japan [asked] their negotiators to oppose requirements in the TPP that would require their country, and five of the other 11 nations negotiating this secretive agreement, to expand their copyright terms to match the United States' already excessive length of copyright."[117] (The alleged "excessive length," life of the author plus 70 years in most cases, is in the final agreement.) Ken Akamatsu, creator of Japanese manga series Love Hina and Mahou Sensei Negima!, expressed concern the agreement could decimate the derivative dōjinshi (self-published) works prevalent in Japan. Akamatsu argued that the TPP "would destroy derivative dōjinshi. And as a result, the power of the entire manga industry would also diminish."[118] In May 2015, Nobel prize winning economist Paul Krugman expressed concern that the TPP would tighten the patent laws and allow corporations such as big pharmaceutical companies and Hollywood to gain advantages, in terms of increasing rewards, at the cost of consumers, and that people in developing countries would not be able to access the medicines under the TPP regime.[119] He also pointed out that the TPP would allow multinational corporations to sue national governments, and have cases where group of people who are privately elected can judge.[119] ISDS[edit] In April 2015 the director of Public Citizen's Global Trade Watch, Lori Wallach, said "We consider it inappropriate to elevate an individual investor or company to equal status with a nation state to privately enforce a public treaty between two sovereign countries", … "[ISDS] gives extraordinary new privileges and powers and rights to just one interest. Foreign investors are privileged vis-a-vis domestic companies, vis-a-vis the government of a country, [and] vis-a-vis other private sector interests", "... the basic reality of ISDS: it provides foreign investors alone access to non-U.S. courts to pursue claims against the U.S. government on the basis of broader substantive rights than U.S. firms are afforded under U.S. law".[120] On 5 October 2015 economists Joseph Stiglitz and Adam S. Hersh questioned the ISDS provisions of the TPP. "To be sure", they wrote, "investors—wherever they call home—deserve protection from expropriation or discriminatory regulations. But ISDS goes much further: The obligation to compensate investors for losses of expected profits can and has been applied even where rules are nondiscriminatory and profits are made from causing public harm. ... Imagine what would have happened if these provisions had been in place when the lethal effects of asbestos were discovered. Rather than shutting down manufacturers and forcing them to compensate those who had been harmed, under ISDS, governments would have had to pay the manufacturers not to kill their citizens. Taxpayers would have been hit twice—first to pay for the health damage caused by asbestos, and then to compensate manufacturers for their lost profits when the government stepped in to regulate a dangerous product.".[121] Stiglitz also claimed that the TPP would give oil companies the right to sue governments for loss of profits due to efforts to reduce carbon emissions and global warming.[122] In November 2015, Columbia professor Jeffrey Sachs expressed concern that the ISDS-type system which the TPP proposes grants huge power to investors, and that the TPP damages the judicial systems of all the member countries, noting that ISDS has been already used by corporations to upset governments so as to weaken the regulations that have negative effects on their profits.[123] Pointing out what he believes are problems with the unnecessarily strong copyright protections and intellectual properties, the deficiencies in the standards of worker protections, the lack of social and environmental commitments in the TPP, he concluded that the US Congress must oppose the TPP.[123] In February 2016, Lise Johnson and Lisa Sachs of the Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment and Jeffrey Sachs of the Earth Institute said that the ISDS provision in the TPP was an expanded version of the ISDS in NAFTA, pointing out that more than 10 percent of foreign investors in the US could access ISDS under the TPP regime.[124] Under the ISDS mechanism, foreign corporations can sue a national government in international arbitration over a government's actions if the measures have a negative effect on their profits and economic interests. Various measures, including those for public health, national security, environment, food and drug, responses to economic crises, could be challenged by foreign corporations, regardless of whether the measures are for the public interest.[124] According to Lori Wallach's interpretation of leaked documents in 2012, countries would be required to conform their domestic laws and regulations to the TPP Agreement, which includes provisions on government spending in certain areas[125] She argues that investor-state dispute settlement mechanism can be used to "attack domestic public interest laws".[125] On 12 April 2016, former Environmental Commissioner of Ontario Gord Miller argued that TPP's ISDS would allow foreign corporations to sue the Canadian government over environmental regulations that the government imposed, and if the corporations won their cases the government would be forced to pay compensations to the corporations from public coffers.[126] Pointing out that Canada was sued multiple times under NAFTA's ISDS and had to pay hundreds of millions of dollars in compensation, Miller explained that paying such compensation was like a hidden tax imposed on Canadians by multinational corporations. Green Party of Canada argues that Canadians should not be taxed by corporations for regulations that protect Canadians and Canada's environment. Miller, who is the Green Party of Canada's Infrastructure & Community Development Critic, concluded that TPP should not be ratified.[126] Cost of medicine[edit] A June 2015 article in the New England Journal of Medicine summarized concerns about the TPP's impact on healthcare in both developed and less developed countries, including potentially increased prices of medical drugs due to patent extensions, which it claimed, could threaten millions of lives. Extending "data exclusivity" provisions would "prevent drug regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration from registering a generic version of a drug for a certain number of years." International tribunals that have been a part of the proposed agreement could theoretically require corporations be paid compensation for any lost profits found to result from a nation's regulations. That, in turn, might interfere with domestic health policy.[127] A number of United States Congressional members,[128] including Senator Bernard Sanders[129] and Representatives Sander M. Levin, John Conyers, Jim McDermott and the now-retired Henry Waxman, as well as [130] John Lewis, Charles B. Rangel, Earl Blumenauer, Lloyd Doggett and then-congressman Pete Stark,[131] expressed concerns about access to medicine. By protecting intellectual property in the form of the TPP mandating patent extensions, access by patients to affordable medicine in the developing world could be hindered, particularly in Vietnam.[128] Additionally, they worried that the TPP would not be flexible enough to accommodate existing non-discriminatory drug reimbursement programs and the diverse health systems of member countries.[131] Opponents of the TPP in New Zealand said U.S. corporations were hoping to weaken the ability of its domestic agency Pharmac to get inexpensive, generic medicines by forcing it to otherwise pay considerably higher prices for brand name drugs.[132] Physicians and organizations, including Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), also known as Doctors Without Borders, also expressed concern.[133] The New Zealand Government denied the claims, Trade Negotiations Minister Tim Groser saying opponents of the deal are "trying to wreck this agreement".[134] When a deal was reached in early October 2015, the U.S. and Australia had negotiated a compromise on the length of the monopoly period on next-generation biotech drugs down from twelve years requested by the U.S. to "a minimum period of 5 years and up to a minimum of 8 years."[135] In Australia, critics of the investment protection regime argued that traditional investment treaty standards are incompatible with some public health regulations, meaning that the TPP will be used to force states to adopt lower standards, e.g., with respect to patented pharmaceuticals.[136] The Australian Public Health Association (PHAA) published a media release on 17 February 2014 that discussed the potential impact of the TPP on the health of Australia's population. A policy brief formulated through a collaboration between academics and non-government organizations (NGOs) was the basis of the media release, with the partnership continuing its Health Impact Assessment of the trade agreement at the time of the PHAA's statement. Michael Moore, the PHAA's CEO, said, "The brief highlights the ways in which some of the expected economic gains from the TPPA may be undermined by poor health outcomes, and the economic costs associated with these poor health outcomes."[137] In February 2015, former U.S. Labor Secretary Robert Reich stated he opposed the TPP because it would delay cheaper generic versions of drugs and because of its provisions for international tribunals that can require corporations be paid "compensation for any lost profits found to result from a nation's regulations."[138] When the full-text of the TPP was officially released on 5 November 2015, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), also known as Doctors Without Borders, expressed that they were "extremely concerned about the inclusion of dangerous provisions that would dismantle public health safeguards enshrined in international law and restrict access to price-lowering generic medicines for millions of people."[139][140] MSF's advisor, Judit Rius Sanjuan, cautioned that,[139] "MSF remains gravely concerned about the effects that the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade deal will have on access to affordable medicines for millions of people, if it is enacted. Today’s official release of the agreed TPP text confirms that the deal will further delay price-lowering generic competition by extending and strengthening monopoly market protections for pharmaceutical companies." — Doctors Without Borders November 5, 2015 India's laws concerning drug patents allow it to develop generic drugs. Despite India not being a signatory to the TPP, the provisions in the TPP concerning generic drugs seem to be directly targeting India's pharmaceutical industry, according to Amy Kapczynski, faculty director of the Global Health Justice Partnership at Yale University.[127] Income inequality[edit] In 2013, Nobel Memorial prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz warned that based on leaked drafts of the TPP, it presented "grave risks" and "serves the interests of the wealthiest."[107][141] Organised labour in the U.S. argued that the trade deal would largely benefit corporations at the expense of workers in the manufacturing and service industries.[142] The Economic Policy Institute and the Center for Economic and Policy Research argued that the TPP could result in further job losses and declining wages.[143][144] In 2014, Noam Chomsky warned that the TPP is "designed to carry forward the neoliberal project to maximise profit and domination, and to set the working people in the world in competition with one another so as to lower wages to increase insecurity."[145] Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT), who opposes fast track, stated that trade agreements like the TPP "have ended up devastating working families and enriching large corporations."[146] Economist Robert Reich contends that the TPP is a "Trojan horse in a global race to the bottom, giving big corporations and Wall Street banks a way to eliminate any and all laws and regulations that get in the way of their profits."[147][148] After the announcement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on 25 September 2015 and the finalisation of the TPP a week later, critics have discussed the interactions between the SDGs and the TPP. While one critic sees the TPP as providing a mixed bag of benefits and drawbacks to the SDGs,[149] another regards the TPP as being incompatible with the SDGs, highlighting that if the development provisions clash with any other aspect of the TPP, the other aspect takes priority.[150] The Friends of the Earth have spoken out against the TPP.[151][152] Economists Peter A. Petri and Michael G. Plummer challenge the view that TPP will primarily benefit the wealthy. Their analysis finds that "the gains from TPP appear to be fairly distributed—labour will gain relative to capital, and cost reductions will favour low-income households. Some workers will need to change jobs, but they constitute a small fraction of normal job churn in any given year, and the national benefits argue for generous compensation for their adjustment costs. The agreement will also benefit workers in TPP’s poorest member countries."[153] Research by Harvard economist Robert Z. Lawrence finds that the "percentage gains for labor income from the TPP will be slightly greater than the gains to capital income. Households in all quintiles will benefit by similar percentages, but once differences in spending shares are taken into account, the percentage gains to poor and middle-class households will be slightly larger than the gains to households at the top."[154][155] An opinion piece by Ed Gerwin in the Wall Street Journal argues that the TPP agreement benefits small businesses in the US.[44] Economists David Autor, David Dorn and Gordon H. Hanson, who have extensively studied US labor markets adjustments to trade competition shocks caused by China,[156] support TPP.[157] They argue that TPP "would promote trade in knowledge-intensive services in which U.S. companies exert a strong comparative advantage", note that "killing the TPP would do little to bring factory work back to America" and argue that it would pressure China to raise regulatory rules and standards to those of TPP members.[157] Environment[edit] In 2013, Sierra Club's director of responsible trade, Ilana Solomon, argued that the TPP "could directly threaten our climate and our environment [including] new rights that would be given to corporations, and new constraints on the fossil fuel industry all have a huge impact on our climate, water, and land."[158] Upon the publication of a complete draft of the Environment Chapter and the corresponding Chairs' Report by Wikileaks in January 2014, the Natural Resources Defense Council and the World Wide Fund for Nature joined with the Sierra Club in criticizing the TPP. WikiLeaks co-founder Julian Assange described the Environment Chapter as "a toothless public relations exercise with no enforcement mechanism."[159][160] In January 2014, The Washington Post's editorial board opined that congressional sponsors of legislation to expedite approval of the TPP in the U.S. already included provisions to ensure that all TPP countries meet international labour and environmental standards, and that the U.S. "has been made more productive by broader international competition and more secure by broader international prosperity".[161] The Venezuelan-backed TeleSUR reported that, when a deal was struck on 5 October 2015, various environmental organizations including the Sierra Club, NRDC, Greenpeace, 350.org, and Food & Water Watch raised warnings against the deal.[162] However, the White House has a website with supportive statements from the World Wildlife Fund, the Nature Conservancy, the Humane Society, and other environmental groups in favor of the TPP.[163] Labour standards[edit] In January 2016, Human Rights Watch said that the TPP side agreements with Vietnam, Malaysia, and Brunei "are a unique and significant step in efforts to protect labor rights in trade agreements" but noted that enforcement of these rules remains to be seen: "gauging compliance will require subjective assessments by the US that may take years to carry out and face obstacles arising from foreign policy objectives, commercial interests, and other political considerations."[164] In May 2015, U.S. politician Sander Levin said that Vietnam has not enforced compliance with basic international labour standards: for example if a worker tries to form an independent union in Vietnam, the worker can be jailed. He said that, even if countries change their laws, it is difficult to enforce trade deals. He added that there is no evidence that the Southeast Asian country is going to meet the international labour standards.[165] U.S. Senator Elizabeth Warren strongly opposes the TPP, issuing a staff report on the agreement. The report says that there is a huge gap between the promises that past US free trade agreements contained and the actual enforcement of their labour provisions.[165] Non-compete clause[edit] Dean Baker argued that Article 18.78, under which countries should ensure that they protect trade secrets and impose criminal procedures for violators, could be used to enforce non-compete agreements, and that big tech companies were happy if they could prevent workers from joining their rivals or starting their own company. Pointing out that California's success was attributed to the fact that the state did not allow for the enforcement of non-compete agrrments (and that in California it was easy for tech workers to quit their jobs and start to work for another company), and that Michigan enforced non-compete agreements, Baker wrote that the connection between Silicon Valley and Detroit came in Article 18.78.[166] Protests[edit] A protest in Wellington, New Zealand in November 2014 "Stop Fast Track" rally in Washington D.C., April 2015 Protesters of the 4 February signing at SkyCity Events Centre in Auckland, New Zealand. A number of global health professionals, internet freedom activists, environmentalists, trade unions, advocacy groups, and elected officials have criticized and protested against the treaty, in large part because of the secrecy of negotiations, the agreement's expansive scope, and controversial clauses in drafts leaked to the public.[107][167][168][169][170] On 5 March 2012, a group of TPP protesters disrupted an outside broadcast of 7News Melbourne's 6 pm bulletin at Melbourne, Australia's Federation Square venue.[171] In New Zealand, the "It's Our Future" protest group was formed[172] with the aim of raising public awareness prior to the Auckland round of negotiations, which was held from 3 to 12 December 2012.[173] During the Auckland negotiations, hundreds of protesters clashed with police outside the conference venue and lit a fire in the streets.[174] A poll conducted in December 2012 showed 64 percent of New Zealanders thought trade agreements, such as the TPP, which allow corporations to sue governments, should be rejected.[175] In March 2013, four thousand Japanese farmers held a protest in Tokyo over the potential for cheap imports to severely damage the local agricultural industry.[176] On 21 February 2014, Malaysian protesters dressed as zombies outside a shopping mall in Kuala Lumpur to protest the impact of the TPP on the price of medicines, including treatment drugs for HIV. The protest group consisted of students, members of the Malaysian AIDS Council and HIV-positive patients—one patient explained that, in Malaysian ringgit, he spent between RM500 and RM600 each month on treatment drugs, but this cost would increase to around RM3,000.[177] On 29 March 2014, 15 anti-TPP protests occurred across New Zealand, including a demonstration in Auckland attended by several thousand people.[178] The New Zealand Nurses Association was particularly concerned that the TPP could prevent government decisions that could benefit public health.[179] On 8 November 2014, further protests occurred in 17 New Zealand cities, with turnouts in the thousands.[180][181] In January 2015, various petitions and public protests occurred in the U.S. from progressives.[182] On 27 January 2015, protesters hijacked a US Senate hearing to speak out against the TPP and were promptly removed by capitol police officers.[183] On 15 August 2015, protests were held across New Zealand in Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington, as well as several smaller cities. An activist claimed that over 25,000 people collectively protested against the TPP free trade deal throughout the country.[184] The protests were peaceful; however, police were forced to protect the steps of the Parliament building in the capital of Wellington, after an estimated 2000 people marched to the entrance.[185][186][187] On 15 September 2015, an estimated 50 protesters blocked a lane of Lambton Quay in the central business district of Wellington, New Zealand. It was reported that up to 30 people were arrested after forming a block on the road, and were taken away in police vans. The group was attempting to enter the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade headquarters, in attempt to seize documents related to the TPPA. They criticized the secrecy surrounding the negotiations, chanting "democracy not secrecy".[188] They were stopped by a police barricade, which later extended to a lock down of the road.[184] On 23 January 2016, two protests against TPP occurred at Dataran Merdeka and Padang Merbok in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. PAS deputy president Tuan Ibrahim Tuan Man estimated the crowd to be about 25,000 people at Padang Merbok alone. However, Malaysiakini estimated the number for both Padang Merbok and Dataran Merdeka in Kuala Lumpur city centre at 5,000 maximum and called the protest a "dud".[189] On 30 January 2016, in Wellington, thousands of people joined anti-TPP rallies, and about five hundred people presented a petition calling for a binding referendum on the TPP before New Zealand's government ratifies the TPP.[190] On 4 February 2016, trade ministers from the twelve negotiating countries met at the SkyCity Events Centre in Auckland, New Zealand.[191] Between 2,000 and 15,000 protesters were estimated to have marched down Queen Street at midday, including additional rallies in Aotea Square and outside of SkyCity.[192][193] Groups of protesters blocked central city intersections and motorway ramps during the day, including an incident where 100 protesters ran onto a section of the central city motorway.[191][192] Protesters in Auckland were joined by the annual Waitangi Day hikoi,[194] and an additional 250 people protested at the Wellington Cenotaph outside of parliament in Wellington.[192] In early April 2016, New York Mayor Bill de Blasio joined an anti-TPP rally, and explained why he stood up and fought against the TPP.[195] As de Blasio noted, NAFTA was a disastrous trade pact: under NAFTA, about one million US jobs and tens of thousands of New York jobs were lost, and the decent standard of living for the US middle class was eroded. He argued that the TPP would damage US as NAFTA did, suggesting that the TPP would worsen US's income inequality.[195] In April 2016, more than twenty lawmakers in Washington agreed that the US Congress should oppose the TPP. The lawmakers expressed concern that the TPP would have negative impacts on various things: availability of life saving drugs, protections of the environment and natural resources, jobs, labor standards and human rights. They sent a letter to Washington State Members of Congress, urging them to reject the TPP.[196][197] See also[edit] Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act (COICA) Counterfeit Digital rights Foreign trade of the United States Free Trade Area Generic drug Office of the United States Trade Representative Protect IP Act (PIPA) Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Tariff Trade in Services Agreement (TISA) Trade Promotional Authority Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement